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Summary

A clinical field trial was undertaken to determine the influence of an intramammary device (imd) on environmental mastitis and production. On 4 central California dairies, 200 Holstein first-lactation cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Cows in the treatment group were fitted with an imd, and cows in the control group were not. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the 2 groups was determined during the study period. Bacteriologic monitoring at intervals over 2 lactations (lactation 2 and through 60 days of lactation 3) was used to determine the incidence of subclinical infection. In addition, data were collected to determine whether the groups differed in milk production, butterfat production, postmilking and test-day somatic cell counts, and reproductive efficiency. Total milk production and butterfat production over the 2 lactation periods did not vary significantly between the groups. Also, the groups did not differ in calving-to-conception interval, duration of lactation, calving interval, and calving-to-first service interval. Cows with imd were significantly less likely to develop clinical mastitis (5% vs 13%) than control cows. The imd did not appear to affect subclinical infection rates (minor pathogens only) except at day 300 of lactation 2 and at day 10 of lactation 3, when prevalence was greater in the cows with imd. The minor pathogens were predominately (80%) coagulase-negative staphylococci. It was unusual to have coagulase-negative staphylococci in the same quarter at 2 consecutive samplings, prompting the speculation that during lactation, the duration of coagulase-negative staphylococci infection is short (resolves without intervention). However, new infections developed in other quarters, thus maintaining a consistent quarter prevalence throughout the lactation. The imd induced a significant increase in postmilking somatic cell count, compared with results from control cows, and test-day somatic cell count had a more modest increase in cows with imd, compared with previous studies.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Several phosphodiesterase inhibitors have demonstrable antiplatelet actions when administered to human patients. Concentration-dependent inhibition of feline platelet aggregation by pimobendan has been previously demonstrated in vitro. However, there are no published reports characterizing the effect of oral pimobendan, administered at therapeutic doses, on platelet function in cats. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of orally administered pimobendan on platelet function in healthy adult cats.

ANIMALS

6 healthy purpose-bred adult cats

METHODS

Cats were administered pimobendan orally at a dosage of 0.625 mg/cat (low-dose) twice daily for 1 week, followed by 1.25 mg/cat (high-dose) twice daily for 1 week. Venous blood sampling for platelet testing and plasma drug concentration occurred at baseline, 1 hour postdose on the eighth day of treatment with low-dose pimobendan, 1 hour postdose on the eighth day of treatment with high-dose pimobendan, and after a 1-week washout period. Platelet function was assessed by whole blood aggregometry and by use of a platelet function analyzer (PFA-100®). Friedman tests were used to compare platelet function parameters among the 4 sampling timepoints.

RESULTS

After 1 week of treatment, median (range) plasma pimobendan concentrations were 15.1 ng/mL (6.89–20.2 ng/mL) and 32.8 ng/mL (23.3–44.8 ng/mL) in cats receiving low-dose and high-dose pimobendan, respectively. No significant differences in PFA closure time or any aggregometry variable were found among the treatment conditions.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Pimobendan was not associated with measurable inhibition of platelet function when administered orally to healthy adult cats at 2 clinically relevant dosages.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish the pharmacokinetics of the cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor flavopiridol in equine middle carpal joints, using an extended-release poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticle formulation.

ANIMALS

4 healthy horses without evidence of forelimb lameness.

METHODS

A 6-week longitudinal pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 2 phases (6 weeks each) in 4 healthy horses. The PLGA microparticles containing 122 μg flavopiridol in 3 mL saline were administered by intra-articular injection into 1 middle carpal joint, with empty PLGA microparticles injected into the contralateral joint as a control. Synovial fluid and plasma were collected at time points out to 6 weeks, and drug concentrations in synovial fluid and plasma were determined using validated protocols. Synovial fluid total protein and total nucleated cell count and differential, CBC, serum biochemistry, and lameness exams were performed at each of the time points.

RESULTS

Synovial fluid flavopiridol averaged 19 nM at week 1, gradually reduced to 1.4 nM by 4 weeks, and was generally below the detection limit at 5 and 6 weeks. There was no detectable flavopiridol in the plasma samples, and no adverse effects were observed at any time point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intra-articular injection of PLGA microparticle-encapsulated flavopiridol was well tolerated in horses, with detectable levels of flavopiridol in the synovial fluid out to 4 weeks with negligible systemic exposure. Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The extended-release microparticle formulation promotes intra-articular retention of the drug and it may be an alternative to other intra-articular medications for treatment of equine joint disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research