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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Coefficients of variation were calculated for peak vertical force and for vertical, cranial, and caudal impulses recorded from the left forelimb and left hind limb of 5 dogs that were trotted across a force plate 5 times by 5 handlers. To determine the percentages of variance attributable to dogs, handlers, and trial repetitions, data recorded for each force measurement were analyzed according to a two-factor anova. Coefficients of variation for peak vertical forces and for vertical impulses varied between 5.8 and 8.5%. Coefficients of variation for the forelimb cranial and caudal impulses and for the hind limb cranial and caudal impulses were 26.4 and 30.5%, and 63.0 and 25.9%, respectively. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs and to trial repetitions ranged from 14 to 69% and from 29 to 85%, respectively, depending on the force or impulse evaluated. The percentage of variance attributable to handlers varied between 0 and 7%. The trivial amount of variation attributable to handlers indicated that multiple handlers may be used in experiments without an appreciable influence on the results.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To use ground reaction forces and related impulses as an objective measurement of limb function in the comparison of 1 extracapsular and 1 intracapsular surgical technique for repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.


18 healthy dogs.


All dogs underwent force-plate analysis of gait prior to transection of the left cranial cruciate ligament. The dogs were randomly allotted to 3 groups. The ligamentous instability was corrected, using a modified retinacular imbrication technique (MRIT) in 1 group and an under-and-over technique in another group. No attempt was made to correct the ligamentous instability in a control group. Clinical grading of lameness and force-plate analysis of gait were performed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after surgery.


Peak vertical force and vertical, braking, and propulsion impulses were recorded for each limb at each time. The degree of clinical lameness was graded at each time.


Left hind limb peak vertical forces and vertical impulses were significantly decreased at all times after surgery in the control and under-and-over technique group, compared with values before surgery. Dogs of the MRIT group had improved by 20 weeks, with no significant differences between left hind limb peak vertical forces or vertical impulses recorded before surgery and at 20 weeks.


Peak vertical forces and vertical impulses in dogs undergoing MRIT repair after experimentally created cranial cruciate ligament rupture are not significantly different when values recorded for the operated limb at 20 weeks after surgery are compared with those recorded prior to surgery.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:389-393)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research