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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A sublethal dose of ethylene glycol was administered orally to 3 groups of dogs; dogs of a control group were given distilled water instead. Renal cortical biopsy samples were obtained from dogs of experimental and control groups at various times after treatment. Tissue was examined by use of light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In dogs of the control group, the light and electron microscopic appearances of tissue were within normal limits at all sample collection hours. In dogs of the experimental groups, renal corpuscular structure remained within normal limits by use of light and electron microscopy throughout the study, though morphologic change was seen in other structures of the cortex. Light microscopic lesions first appeared at 12 hours, and were similar to those reported in the literature. Ultrastructural lesions were first observed in the 5-hour samples, and similar to the light microscopic lesions, were most common in the proximal convoluted tubules (pct). Initial pct cellular changes included vacuolization of cells and distention of the parabasal extracellular spaces; pct cellular lesions seen in later-hour samples included formation of apical buds and cellular rupture. Internalization or sloughing of the pct brush border was not observed. Distal convoluted tubules (dct) were frequently dilated and/or packed with cellular debris. A few dct cells had degenerative or necrotic changes. In pct and dct, abnormal cells were frequently flanked by normal or nearly normal cells. During later hours, a few cells with types of changes first observed in early hours continued to be observed, implying ongoing response of cells to the toxin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Urinary indices of renal function and damage were measured in 6 healthy, mature ewes over a 48-hour period. Endogenous creatinine clearance, total and fractional electrolyte excretion rates, protein excretion, urine volume, and urine γ-glutamyltransferase and β-glucuronidase activities were measured. Significant variations in the excretion rates of creatinine, electrolytes, and protein were not found between intervals within the 48-hour urine collection period. Total urinary electrolyte excretion rates were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with fractional electrolyte excretion rates normalized for creatinine concentration; however, coefficient of determination was low.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To use scintigraphy to determine the effects of partial ureteral obstruction on renal transit time and induction of diuresis in dogs.

Animals

8 adult dogs.

Procedure

Scintigraphy was performed, using technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (Tc 99m-DTPA), before and within 2 weeks after surgical induction of unilateral partial ureteral obstruction. Time of peak (TOP) for the parenchyma (pTOP) and whole kidney (wTOP) and mean-transit time (MTT) for the parenchyma (pMTT) and whole kidney (wMTT) were determined by evaluation of renal time-activity curves before and after deconvolution analysis. Percentage uptake for each kidney between 1 and 3 minutes after injection of Tc 99m-DTPA was determined and used to indicate glomerular filtration rate. The effect of diuresis was determined by measuring the slope of decrease in activity after IV administration of furosemide. Obstruction was documented by direct inspection of the ureter.

Results

There was a concomitant increase in pTOP, wTOP, pMTT, and wMTT of the kidney with the partially obstructed ureter in all dogs at various times between 2 and 9 days after surgery. Concurrently, renal time-activity curves changed shape. Percentage renal uptake of the affected kidney was decreased in 2 dogs. Response to furosemide injection was inconsistent for kidneys before surgery and for kidneys with obstructed and nonobstructed ureters after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Scintigraphy may be a useful procedure for the evaluation of renal function in dogs with ureteral obstruction. Induction of diuresis appears to be of little value for differentiating renal function in dogs with obstructed and nonobstructed ureters. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1383–1389)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

Chronic renal failure was observed in 10 young adult client-owned cats that had been fed 1 commercial cat food exclusively since weaning. The diet contained 40% protein and 0.32% potassium on a dry matter basis, and phosphoric acid was added during production. We attempted to determine whether exclusive feeding of this diet would induce clinical and laboratory evidence of renal dysfunction in clinically normal adult cats. Over a 2-year study, 3 of 9 of these cats developed clinical and laboratory evidence of renal dysfunction and renal lesions. Two additional cats developed renal lesions, but had normal laboratory values. The renal lesions consisted of lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis and interstitial fibrosis. We concluded that chronic renal disease may develop in clinically normal adult cats fed diets high in protein and acid content, but marginally replete in potassium.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges.

Treatment and Outcome—Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis.

Clinical Relevance—Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association