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SUMMARY

The objectives of this experiment were to determine serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and free thyroxine (fT4) at rest, following thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) administration, and following phenylbutazone administration in healthy horses. This was done to determine which available laboratory test can best be used for diagnosis of hypothyroid conditions in horses. Serum T3, T4, and fT4 concentrations in serum samples obtained before and after tsh stimulation and following phenylbutazone administration for 7 days were determined.

Baseline values ranged from 0.21 to 0.80 ng of T3/ml, 6.2 to 25.1 ng of T4/ml, and 0.07 to 0.47 ng of fT3/dl. After 5 IU of tsh was administered IV, serum T3 values increased to 6 times baseline values in 2 hours. Thyroxine values increased to 3 times baseline values at 4 hours and remained high at 6 hours. Free T4 values increased to 4 times baseline values at 4 hours and remained high at 6 hours. Administration of 4.4 mg of phenylbutazone/kg, every 12 hours for 7 days significantly decreased T4 and fT4 values, but did not significantly affect serum T3 concentrations. It was concluded that a tsh stimulation test should be performed when hypothyroidism is suspected. Measurement of serum fT4 concentrations, by the single-stage radioimmunoassay, does not provide any additional information about thyroid gland function over that gained by measuring T4 concentrations. Phenylbutazone given at a dosage of 4.4 mg/kg every 24 hours, for 7 days did significantly decrease resting T4 and fT4 concentrations, but did not significantly affect T3 concentrations in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Experimental pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica was induced in 2-week-old gnotobiotic (n = 4) and conventional (n = 6) calves by endobronchial inoculation into the right caudal lung lobe of 7.9 × 1010 ± 0.6 × 1010 (mean ± sd) colony-forming units of P haemolytica in the 6-hour log phase of growth. The calves were studied for 24 hours or less. Regression lines for the relationship between clinical index and time for the gnotobiotic group and conventional group of calves were compared, and the clinical index was found to be significantly (P ≤ 0.005) more rapid in the gnotobiotic group. There was also a significant difference in the preinoculation, absolute segmented neutrophil count (P ≤ 0.05), and in the total serum protein, albumin, and globulin values (P ≤ 0.05). Comparison of the preinoculation and post inoculation blood cell and blood chemical values revealed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the numbers of band neutrophils and fibrinogen in conventional calves, and a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the total wbc count in gnotobiotic calves. Necropsy of both groups of calves revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm, and which occupied 20% to 100% of the right caudal lung lobe and involved the remaining lung lobes to a more minor degree. When mean lesion scores of the 2 groups of calves were compared, no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) was found. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed edema of the perivascular and interlobular septa and hemorrhage in the alveoli of both groups, although the conventional group had more fibrinopurulent inflammation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the degree of fluctuation in tracheal dimensions between forced inspiration and passive expiration in healthy dogs of various sizes.

Animals—10 client-owned dogs with no evidence of respiratory disease or tracheal collapse.

Procedures—Anesthetized dogs underwent a computed tomographic examination during forced inspiration and induced but passive expiration to assess tracheal dimensions. Tracheal height, width, and cross-sectional area were measured at inspiration and expiration, and percentage change in dimension was calculated for each variable.

Results—Measurements were acquired in 10 dogs that ranged in body weight from 3.5 to 47.8 kg. Tracheal cross-sectional area at inspiration and expiration was associated with body weight at all 3 tracheal regions. The percentage change in tracheal height and cross-sectional area was associated with body weight in the cervical but not the thoracic-inlet or thoracic regions. The tracheal cross-sectional area changed by as much as 24.2% (mean, 5.5%), 20.0% (mean, 6.0%), and 18.6% (mean, 6.0%) in the cervical, thoracic-inlet, and thoracic regions, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The change in tracheal cross-sectional area from inspiration to expiration was as great as 24% in healthy dogs, and the area was associated with body weight. Respiratory fluctuations appeared to result in changes in tracheal dimension during respiration similar to those reported for humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia of the right caudal lung lobe was experimentally induced in 2-week-old Holstein calves (n = 11) by endobronchial inoculation of 7.9 × 1010 colony-forming units of 6-hour log-phase bacteria. Calves were studied for 72 hours after inoculation. The challenge procedure consistently induced a lesion in the right caudal lung lobe, which was consistent radiographically with results of pathologic examination and a similar volume of bronchography contrast medium. Clinically, the calves developed a significant increase in rectal temperature within 24 hours after inoculation. Seventy-two hours after inoculation, the total wbc counts, absolute band neutrophil counts, monocyte counts, and blood fibrinogen concentrations were significantly higher than normal and albumin concentration was significantly decreased. Necropsy revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm and occupied 20 to 40% of the right caudal lung lobe. Histologic examination revealed a severe acute inflammatory reaction characterized by cellular exudate and proteinaceous fluid in the alveoli, interlobular septa, and pleura.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the overall prevalence of morphologic defects in spermatozoa from beef bulls and to determine whether prevalence varies with the age of the bull.

Design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals

2,497 beef bulls that were evaluated for breeding soundness in 1994 by 29 practicing veterinarians in a 5-state geographic region.

Procedure

Slides of spermatozoa from each bull were made and submitted by practicing veterinarians for morphologic evaluation. One hundred spermatozoa per slide were examined, and each was classified as having 1 of 9 morphologic defects or as normal.

Results

63% of bulls evaluated were 10 to 12 months old, and 20% were 13 to 18 months old. A mean of 70.6% of spermatozoa was classified as normal. Most common defects were proximal droplets (8.4%), distal midpiece reflexes (6.7%), separated heads (5.5%), and distal droplets (3.8%). Other defects were seen < 2% of the time. Bulls 10 to 12 months of age had a higher prevalence of proximal and distal droplet defects than older bulls.

Clinical Implications

Practitioners conducting breeding soundness evaluations in beef bulls must be aware of common spermatozoal defects. Bulls that are evaluated at a young age will have more defects than older bulls and should be reevaluated, particularly for those defects for which prevalence decreases with age. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1468-1471)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration, proposed to remove inflammatory mediators from circulation, would resolve cardiopulmonary derangements in a model of established endotoxic shock.

Animals

16 clinically normal pigs.

Procedure

Endotoxin was infused, IV, into anesthetized pigs for a total of 50 minutes. Thirty minutes after termination of the infusion period, extracorporeal circulation was initiated through a 50-kd diafilter, or past the filter without ultrafiltrate formation. Cardiac and respiratory variables were monitored for a period of 4 hours.

Results

Infusion of lipopolysaccharide resulted in a severe hypodynamic circulatory state, with significant decreases in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output concurrent with a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. Hemofiltration was not associated with any correction of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiopulmonary derangements.

Conclusions

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration, as used in this acute experiment, did not improve cardiopulmonary dysfunction during endotoxic shock.

Clinical Relevance

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration needs further investigation before it can be recommended as a clinically effective treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:408–413)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess the nematocidal efficacy of eprinomectin in naturally infected cattle.

Animals

62 (31 eprinomectin-treated and 31 control) beef mixed-breed or Holstein cattle, either 6 to 11 or 48 to 96 months old.

Procedure

Cattle were housed 21 to 27 days before treatment to allow parasites to reach maturity. Animals were grouped by sex, ranked by weight, and randomly assigned to treatment group. Fecal flotation was done to identify cattle with intestinal nematode infections. Treatment groups were: 1—eprinomectin topical vehicle (1 ml/10 kg) and 2—eprinomectin topical solution (1 ml/10 kg). Cattle were euthanatized by replicate on day 14 or 15, and standard procedures were used to recover of pulmonary, abomasal, small intestinal, and large intestinal nematodes.

Results

Eprinomectin efficacy across all trials was 100% against adult Trichostrongylus axei, Haemonchus placei, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Dictyocaulus viviparus, as well as fourth-stage larval Oes radiatum, Ostertagia ostertagi, Nematodirus helvetianus, and Cooperia spp. Efficacy against adult O ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora, C punctata, C surnabada, C spatulata, N helvetianus, Trichuris sp, and Trichuris fourth-stage larvae was 99.9, 99.8, 99.6, 98.9, 98.3, 99.7, 97.8, and 84.3%, respectively. All results were significant (P < 0.01) except those for C spatulata. Adverse reactions were not observed.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Eprinomectin is a safe and effective nematocide against naturally acquired nematode infections in cattle when administered at a dosage of 500 μg/kg. Milk and meat withholding is not necessary when using this product. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:612–614)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare toxicokinetic variables and associated tissue drug concentrations with severity of articular lesions in weight-bearing joints of juvenile rabbits after oral administration of a fluoroquinolone.

Animals—Ten 6- to 7-week-old, 800- to 1,200-g, New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Rabbits were gavaged daily with the fluoroquinolone PD 117596 at 500 mg/kg of body weight for 5 days. Blood samples were collected on day 4 at preestablished times, up to 24 hours after drug administration. On day 5 gross lesion severity and prevalence were evaluated in the major weight-bearing joints, and tissue specimens were collected (60 minutes after drug administration). Serum and tissue drug concentrations were determined by microbiologic plate assay.

Results—Macroscopically, treatment rabbits had a high prevalence of arthropathy with the distal portion of the femur having the highest prevalence and severity of lesions. Grossly, alterations to articular cartilage included 1 to 4 mm in diameter vesicles or erosions. Histologically, vesicles were identified in the midzone or close to the zone of calcified cartilage of treatment rabbits. Chondrocyte cellularity was reduced in affected areas, and perivesicular regions had reduced staining with Safranin O. Correlation analysis of area under the curve values with total scores for lesion severity had a significant positive relationship.

Conclusions—Our findings support the use of juvenile rabbits as a model for arthropathic changes induced by fluoroquinolone administration. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1396–1402)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence and severity of pulmonary arterial lesions in cats seropositive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) but lacking adult heartworms in the heart and lungs during necropsy.

Animals—630 adult cats from an animal control shelter in Florida.

Procedure—Cats were tested for adult heartworms in the heart and pulmonary arteries and antibody against heartworms in the serum. Histologic examination was conducted on the right caudal lung lobe of 24 heartworm- and antibody-positive cats; 24 heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats; and 24 heartworm-, antibody-, and antigen-negative cats. Wall areas of 10 small to medium-sized pulmonary arteries of each cat were measured and expressed as a proportion of total cross-sectional area.

Results—Heartworm infection or seropositive status was significantly and strongly associated with severity of medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial walls. Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats had a significant increase in wall thickness, compared with wall thickness for heartworm- and antibody-negative cats. Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats had the most severe hypertrophy. The proportion with occlusive medial hypertrophy was significantly higher in heartworm- and antibody-positive cats (19/24 [79%]) and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats (12/24 [50%]), compared with heartworm- and antibody-negative cats (3/24 [13%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with serologic evidence of exposure to heartworms, including those without adult heartworms in the lungs and heart, have a greater prevalence of pulmonary arterial lesions than heartworm-negative cats without serologic evidence of exposure. Additional studies are needed to define the pathogenesis, specificity, and clinical importance of these lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1544–1549)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research