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Summary

Decision analysis was used to evaluate the clinical usefulness of 2 diagnostic tests: one for canine heartworm disease and the other for bovine traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Several clinically relevant measures of test performance are introduced, including expected utility, risk profile, testing band, threshold analysis, and the relative cost of misdiagnosis. One of the principal benefits of decision analysis of diagnostic tests is that the technique can be used to determine how changes in underlying assumptions will affect clinical decisions. If clinicians can identify and assign values to relevant variables, then decision analysis can provide clinically meaningful guidelines for interpreting the results of diagnostic tests. To take advantage of these techniques, clinicians must become comfortable with quantitative expressions for test performance, risk, and prognosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the usefulness of retina samples for detection of disease-associated prion protein by use of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) intended for rapid identification of sheep and cattle with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

Samples—Retina, brainstem at the level of the obex, and retropharyngeal lymph node samples obtained from 15 TSE-inoculated sheep (scrapie [n = 13] or transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid [2]); retina and brainstem samples obtained from 11 TSE-inoculated cattle (transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid [7] or classical BSE [4]); and negative control tissue samples obtained from 2 sheep and 2 cattle that were not inoculated with TSEs.

Procedures—Tissue samples were homogenized and analyzed for detection of abnormally folded disease-associated prion protein with a commercially available EIA and 2 confirmatory assays (western blot analysis or immunohistochemical analysis).

Results—Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with results of brainstem sample EIA or confirmatory assay results for negative control animals and TSE-inoculated animals with clinical signs of disease. However, TSE-inoculated animals with positive confirmatory assay results that did not have clinical signs of disease had negative retina sample EIA results. Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with brainstem sample immunohistochemical results for 4 TSE-inoculated sheep with negative retropharyngeal lymph node EIA results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that retina samples may be useful for rapid EIA screening of animals with neurologic signs to detect TSEs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of oral administration of omeprazole and ranitidine on gastric squamous ulceration in Thoroughbreds in race training.

Design—Modified crossover study.

Animals—60 Thoroughbreds in race training with gastric squamous mucosal ulceration.

Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 received no treatment for 28 days followed by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg [1.8 mg/lb], PO, once daily) for 28 days; group 2 received omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, once daily) for 28 days followed by no treatment for 28 days; and group 3 received ranitidine (6.6 mg/kg [3.0 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 28 days followed by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, once daily) for 28 days. Ulceration was assessed endoscopically at days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Lesions were scored from 0 (no ulceration) to 3 (severe ulceration).

Results—After the initial 28 days of treatment, the decrease in ulcer severity was significantly greater after omeprazole treatment than after ranitidine treatment. Ulcer severity decreased significantly in group 3 horses after 14 days of treatment with omeprazole. Discontinuation of omeprazole resulted in worsening of ulcer scores; however, ulcer scores at completion of the study were less than at day 0. Horses that received omeprazole after 28 days of ranitidine treatment had a further reduction in ulcer severity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole was more effective than ranitidine in healing gastric squamous ulcers in Thoroughbreds in race training. Improvement was detected by 14 days and persisted in most of the group 2 horses for at least 28 days after omeprazole treatment was discontinued. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1636–1639)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Kittens are the principal disseminators of Toxoplasma gondii. They can shed > 108 oocysts in the feces after initial infection with bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Thereafter, most kittens develop protective immunity and do not shed oocysts again if they are reinfected. Bradyzoites of a T gondii mutant, designated T-263, were used to vaccinate kittens. Their use did not result in oocyst shedding, but successfully prevented 84% (31/37) of the kittens from shedding oocysts when challenge exposed with a normal isolate of T gondii. Vaccination of outdoor-roaming cats and kittens would be a useful public health measure to prevent transmission of toxoplasmosis near homes, on farms, and in zoos. It is anticipated that several years will be required for a lyophilized bradyzoite vaccine to be ready for licensing and possible commercial availability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cardiorespiratory effects of an iv administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by iv infusion of ketamine (200 μg/kg/min) and midazolam (10 μg/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of iv administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration.

There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate. Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery. Time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking with minimal ataxia was similar for each treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the immune response induced by Borrelia theileri infection and to determine whether B theileri induces cross-reacting antibodies to other bovine borreliae.

Animals

Two 3-month-old calves, 1 of which was splenectomized.

Procedure

Calves were exposed to Boophilus microplus infected with B theileri. Rectal temperature, PCV, bacteremia, and clinical signs of infection were monitored. Serum was obtained weekly and used to evaluate the humoral response to homologous antigen and B burgdorferi and B coriaceae, using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and to B burgdorferi, using a commercially available ELISA. The identity of cross-reacting antigens was explored, using monoclonal antibodies to genus- and species-specific antigens in an IFA test.

Results

B theileri-infected calves produced antibodies that cross-reacted with B burgdorferi and B coriaceae whole-cell antigens. Borrelia theileri whole-cell antigen was recognized by genus-specific monoclonal antibody H9724 but not by species-specific antibody H5332. False-positive reactions were not observed when serum from B theileri-infected calves was tested by use of the ELISA for B burgdorferi.

Conclusions

B theileri induces humoral responses in infected cattle that can be confused with those of other borrelial infections. Care must be taken to definitively distinguish between the various borreliae that may cause disease in cattle.

Clinical Relevance

Serologic cross-reactivity must be taken into account when making a serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis or epizootic abortion in epidemiologic studies involving cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:694–697)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research