Objective—To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats.
Animals—23 clinically normal cats.
Procedures—Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age, and an EEG was recorded at each time point. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age.
Results—Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, which consisted of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike-and-wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex.
Case Description—A 10-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of presumed seizures.
Clinical Findings—The cat had intermittent mydriasis, hyperthermia, and facial twitching. Findings of MRI and CSF sample analysis were unremarkable, and results of infectious disease testing were negative. Treatment was initiated with phenobarbital, zonisamide, and levetiracetam; however, the presumed seizure activity continued. Results of analysis of continuous electroencephalographic recording indicated the cat had nonconvulsive status epilepticus.
Treatment and Outcome—The cat was treated with phenobarbital IV (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb] q 30 min during a 9-hour period; total dose, 108 mg/kg [49.1 mg/lb]); treatment was stopped when a burst-suppression electroencephalographic pattern was detected. During this high-dose phenobarbital treatment period, an endotracheal tube was placed and the cat was monitored and received fluids, hetastarch, and dopamine IV. Continuous mechanical ventilation was not required. After treatment, the cat developed unclassified cardiomyopathy, azotemia, anemia, and pneumonia. These problems resolved during a 9-month period.
Clinical Relevance—Findings for the cat of this report indicated electroencephalographic evidence of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Administration of a high total dose of phenobarbital and monitoring of treatment by use of electroencephalography were successful for resolution of the problem, and treatment sequelae resolved.
Objective—To evaluate deafness in American Paint Horses by phenotype, clinical findings, brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAERs), and endothelin B receptor (EDNBR) genotype.
Design—Case series and case-control studies.
Animals—14 deaf American Paint Horses, 20 suspected-deaf American Paint Horses, and 13 nondeaf American Paint Horses and Pintos.
Procedures—Horses were categorized on the basis of coat color pattern and eye color. Testing for the EDNBR gene mutation (associated with overo lethal white foal syndrome) and BAERs was performed. Additional clinical findings were obtained from medical records.
Results—All 14 deaf horses had loss of all BAER waveforms consistent with complete deafness. Most horses had the splashed white or splashed white–frame blend coat pattern. Other patterns included frame overo and tovero. All of the deaf horses had extensive head and limb white markings, although the amount of white on the neck and trunk varied widely. All horses had at least 1 partially heterochromic iris, and most had 2 blue eyes. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of deaf and suspected-deaf horses had the EDNBR gene mutation. Deaf and suspected-deaf horses were used successfully for various performance events. All nondeaf horses had unremarkable BAER results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should be aware of deafness among American Paint Horses, particularly those with a splashed white or frame overo coat color pattern, blend of these patterns, or tovero pattern. Horses with extensive head and limb markings and those with blue eyes appeared to be at particular risk.
To determine the prevalence of electrographic seizure (ES) and electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) in dogs and cats that underwent electroencephalography (EEG) because of suspected seizure activity and to characterize the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality rates for dogs and cats with ES or ESE.
Retrospective case series.
89 dogs and 15 cats.
Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent EEG at a veterinary neurology service between May 2009 and April 2015 were reviewed. Electrographic seizure was defined as ictal discharges that evolved in frequency, duration, or morphology and lasted at least 10 seconds, and ESE was defined as ES that lasted ≥ 10 minutes. Patient signalment and history, physical and neurologic examination findings, diagnostic test results, and outcome were compared between patients with and without ES or ESE.
Among the 104 patients, ES and ESE were diagnosed in 21 (20%) and 12 (12%), respectively. Seventeen (81%) patients with ES had no or only subtle signs of seizure activity. The in-hospital mortality rate was 48% and 50% for patients with ES and ESE, respectively, compared with 19% for patients without ES or ESE. Risk factors for ES and ESE included young age, overt seizure activity within 8 hours before EEG, and history of cluster seizures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL REVELANCE
Results indicated that ES and ESE were fairly common in dogs and cats with suspected seizure activity and affected patients often had only subtle clinical signs. Therefore, EEG is necessary to detect patients with ES and ESE.
Objective—To develop a clinically applicable technique for recording cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) following stimulation of the radial and ulnar nerves and establish reference values for radial and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) in the wings of ducks.
Animals—8 clinically normal adult female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).
Procedures—Radial and ulnar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) and CDPs were recorded following distal sensory nerve stimulation. The CDPs were recorded from the interarcuate space between the last cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra. Surgical dissection and transection of the brachial plexus in 1 anesthetized duck were performed to identify nerve root location and confirm functional loss of nerve conduction assessed by loss of the CDP.
Results—Radial and ulnar CNAPs and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Median radial SNCV was 38.3 m/s (range, 36.0 to 49.0 m/s), and ulnar SNCV was 35.3 m/s (range, 28.0 to 40.0 m/s). Surgical transection of the brachial plexus resulted in complete loss of the CDP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of radial and ulnar SNCV or CDP is feasible in isoflurane-anesthetized mallard ducks. The CDP accurately reflects sensory nerve conduction through the brachial plexus. Assessment of brachial plexus function in mallard ducks via evaluations of SNCVs and CDPs may have application for diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus, evaluation of neuropathies associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, and assessment of the efficacy of interventions such as brachial plexus nerve blockade.
Objective—To test the hypothesis that application of a rope restraint device would result in behavioral, electroencephalographic, and humoral changes consistent with sleep and analgesia in neonatal foals.
Animals—8 healthy neonatal foals.
Procedures—Following acclimatization to experimental conditions, each foal underwent a series of assessments before and during or at the end of a period of restraint via application of a restraint device (soft linen rope). Assessments included measurements of heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and circulating β-endorphin and steroid hormone concentrations and evaluations of mentation and body position (behavior), electroencephalographic patterns, and pain tolerance.
Results—All foals were lively with apparently normal behavior prior to restraint. During application of the restraint device, foals assumed lateral recumbency with relaxed, somnolent behavior. Heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature uniformly decreased as a result of the procedure. Electroencephalographic recordings (completed for 3 foals only) revealed patterns consistent with slow wave sleep. Plasma ACTH, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione concentrations significantly increased during restraint, compared with prerestraint values. The foals' tolerance to noxious stimuli significantly increased during restraint; however, this was independent of the concentration of circulating β-endorphin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In neonatal foals, the evaluated form of restraint resulted in a decrease in heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature. Squeeze-induced somnolence may resemble the effects of compression of the fetus in the birth canal and lead to inhibition of voluntary activity. Use of this technique to safely restrain neonatal foals during minor procedures warrants further evaluation.
OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds.
ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]).
PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow).
RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.