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Abstract

Objective

To assess the cardiovascular effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine in healthy cats anesthetized with 2% isoflurane.

Animals

11 clinically normal cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and catheters were inserted for measurement of aortic, left ventricular, and right atrial pressures. For data collection, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was reduced to 2%, and end-tidal CO2 was maintained at 35 to 40 mm of Hg by use of positive-pressure ventilation. After measurement of baseline data, medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg of body weight, IM) was administered and data were collected continuously for 75 minutes. At the end of data collection, incisions were closed and cats were allowed to recover from anesthesia.

Results

Medetomidine significantly increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. The increase in mean arterial pressure was maximal at 17.8 ± 7 minutes after medetomidine administration. Medetomidine also increased left ventricular peak systolic pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and right atrial pressure. Medetomidine significantly decreased heart rate and mean aortic flow.

Conclusions

The low dosage of medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg, IM) promoted severe vasoconstriction in isoflurane-anesthetized cats, and resulted in sustained increases in left ventricular preload and afterload. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:509–513)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. All 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Titer to Ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. In the other 6 dogs, titer to E canis was <1:10. The most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia.

Granulocytes infected with ehrlichial organisms were not found in another 10 dogs that had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Of these 10 dogs, 3 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:40 to 1:320. Titer in the other 7 dogs was < 1:10.

Ehrlichial morulae were not found in the granulocytes of 18 healthy dogs. Of these 18 dogs, 9 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. Titer in the other 9 dogs was <1:10

Titer to Borrelia burgdorferi was determined in dogs with granulocytic ehrlichiosis, arthritic dogs without detected rickettsiemia, and in healthy dogs. Low titer determined by 2 laboratories was considered to be nonspecific reaction in all 3 groups of dogs and, thus, did not indicate that the arthritic disorders were attributable to canine borreliosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Doxorubicin was encapsulated in canine erythrocytes, treated with 0.32% glutaraldehyde, and administered at a dosage equivalent to 30 mg of free doxorubicin/m2 of body surface area to dogs with diagnosis of lymphosarcoma. Compared with administration of free doxorubicin, this method of drug delivery substantially reduced peak plasma concentration and prolonged higher plasma concentration of doxorubicin. As such, this method was comparable to continuous iv infusion. Previous studies have indicated this method’s potential for reduction in toxic side effects, particularly cardiotoxicosis, while allowing higher total doses of doxorubicin to be administered. In this study, doxorubicin encapsulated in glutaraldehyde-treated erythrocytes induced a triphasic exponential decay of doxorubicin from plasma, the highest relative contribution to the total area of the curve being the terminal phase. The treatment was effective in inducing complete and partial remissions of lymphosarcoma, with minimal acute toxicosis and no evidence of cardiotoxicosis. However, substantial, unanticipated, chronic, nonregenerative myelosuppression developed, and was most strikingly expressed as profound thrombocytopenia. Efforts to ameliorate or circumvent this toxic effect will be required prior to further consideration of this doxorubicin delivery system for treatment of systemic neoplasia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research