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Assess femorotibial features in foals with and without medial femoral condyle (MFC) subchondral radiolucencies (SR+ and SR–).


3 independent, sequential radiographic studies were performed. Study 1 retrospectively measured femorotibial morphological parameters in repository radiographs (SR– and SR+). Study 2 qualitatively compared drawings of intercondylar notch shape in postmortem radiographs (SR–). Study 3 prospectively measured femorotibial parameters in 1-month-old foals (SR–). In studies 1 and 3, 13 morphologic parameters were measured. Limb directional asymmetry was assessed in 2 age groups (< 7 or ≥ 7 months).


Study 1 (SR– group; n = 183 radiographs) showed increased femoral measurements with maturation, except the distal femoral intercondylar notch width (FINwal), which decreased. In contrast, in SR+ stifles (53 radiographs), 3 femoral parameters (MFC width [MFCwpf], MFC height, or FINwal) showed no changes. Tibial plateau width alone increased with maturation in both groups. Interobserver reliability was good to excellent. Study 2 (n = 53 radiographs) confirmed a distal FINw decrease in SR– foals. In study 1, left SR– stifles in greater than or equal to 7-month-old fillies had significantly larger femoral bicondylar width and FINw, while right SR+ stifles in fillies greater than or equal to 7 months had a significantly larger MFCw. In study 3 of 1-month-old foals (n = 94 SR– radiographs), the MFCw, femoral condyle bicondylar width, and lateral femoral condyle height were all greater on the left, whereas the intercondylar intereminence space width was larger on the right.


In SR+ stifles, the distal femur exhibited divergent maturation, indicating a wider MFC in the right stifle in older foals. As SR lesions are more common on the right, this suggests a potential association with MFC morphology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation (MWA) antennas.

SAMPLE 17 cooled-shaft MWA antennas (3 groups of 5 antennas/group and 2 control antennas).

PROCEDURES 1, 2, and 3 ablations in the livers of bovine cadavers were performed at the maximum recommended settings. Antennas were cleaned and sterilized in hydrogen peroxide plasma, and the process was repeated (reprocessing cycle; n = 6). Control antennas were only sterilized (6 times). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed, and antennas were microscopically assessed for damage.

RESULTS 6 cycles were completed. Thirteen of 15 MWA antennas remained functional for up to 4 cycles, 10 were functional after 5 cycles, and only 7 were functional after 6 cycles. Progressive tearing of the silicone coating of the antennas was observed, with a negative effect of the number of cycles for silicone tearing. Size of the ablation zone decreased mildly over time after cycles 5 and 6; however, this was not considered clinically relevant. No significant changes in the shape of ablation zones were detected. All cultures yielded negative results, except for an isolated case, which was considered a contaminant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Structural and functional integrity of the microwave antennas remained acceptable during repeated use and reprocessing for up to 4 cycles. However, there was a decrease in functional integrity at cycles 5 and 6. We suggest that these microwave antennas be subjected to > 3 reprocessing cycles. Antennas should be carefully examined before reuse.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research