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Objective

To determine history, signalment, physical examination findings, treatment, complications, outcome, and prognostic indicators of dogs and cats treated for gunshot wounds at an urban veterinary referral hospital.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

82 dogs and 2 cats.

Results

Young (< 3 years old) sexually intact males were overrepresented. Of the 122 injuries, 52 were to limbs (23/52 were associated with fractures), 32 involved the thorax, 14 involved the abdomen, 14 involved the head, 6 involved the neck, and 4 involved the vertebral column. Seven animals were euthanatized because of financial concerns. Of the remaining 77, 11 died and 66 were discharged from the hospital.

Conservative treatment was adequate for animals with limb injuries not associated with a fracture. However, animals with evidence of peritoneal penetration required an exploratory laparotomy. Animals with thoracic injuries usually could be managed with conservative treatment or thoracocentesis. Only 1 animal underwent thoracotomy. Wound infection developed in 4 animals. Initial treatment of animals with gunshot wounds should include administration of antibiotics effective against gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

Clinical Implications

Most dogs with gunshot wounds that receive adequate treatment can be expected to survive. However, dogs with vertebral column or abdominal wounds may have a worse prognosis than dogs with thoracic or limb injuries. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:658–662

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether irradiation with a low-intensity diode laser, which produces radiation at a wavelength of 810 nm, will induce nonthermal enhancement of chondrocyte metabolism.

Sample Population

144 grossly normal articular cartilage expiants aseptically harvested from the femoral condyles of 6 adult horses.

Procedure

Treated cartilage expiants were irradiated with a diode laser at 1 of 7 fluence levels that ranged from 8 to 1,600 J/cm2. Expiants were incubated for 24 or 72 hours, labeled for 24 hours with [35S]Na2SO4, and assayed for newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG; measured incorporation of 35SO4) and endogenous GAG, chondroitin 6-sulfate (CS), and keratan sulfate (KS) content, using a dimethylmethylene blue assay. Laser-induced temperature changes were measured during irradiation with a diode laser and a neodymiumyttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, which produces radiation at a wavelength of 1,064 nm, using conditions that were reported in previous studies to increase explant metabolism.

Results

After incubation for 24 or 72 hours, rate of 35SO4 uptake or endogenous GAG, CS, or KS content in irradiated expiants was not significantly different than in nonirradiated expiants. Cartilage temperature increased < 4.75 C during diode laser application. Cartilage temperature increased 5 to 12 C during Nd:YAG laser application.

Conclusions

Minimal thermal increases in cartilage expiants with use of a low-intensity diode laser resulted in no change in proteoglycan metabolism of chondrocytes. An increase in tissue temperature over a narrow range with use of a Nd:YAG laser may have contributed to the metabolic alteration of chondrocytes reported in previous studies. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1613-1618)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sensitivity of several methods of bacteriologic culture of pooled bovine fecal samples for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and evaluate homogeneity in number of M paratuberculosisin pooled fecal samples.

Sample Population—Feces from 10 dairy cows that shed M paratuberculosis at various concentrations and 1 dairy cow known to be free of infection with M paratuberculosis.

Procedure—5 fecal pooling methods, 2 culture methods, and 2 pool sizes were evaluated. Each pooled sample contained 1 infected sample and 4 or 9 uninfected samples.

Results—Sensitivity of detection of M paratuberculosis was greater with smaller pool size (5 vs 10 samples/ pool). Detection sensitivity was also associated with concentration of bacteria in the infected sample. Results indicated that, compared with concurrent bacterial culture of individual infected samples, 37 to 44% of pooled samples with low bacterial concentrations yielded positive culture results and 94% of pooled samples with high bacterial concentrations yielded positive results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bacteriologic culture of pooled fecal samples may provide a valid and cost-effective method of detecting M paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1207–1211)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the validity of a 5-antigen ELISA for detection of tuberculosis in cattle and Cervidae.

Design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Sample Population

Serum samples collected from 5,304 cattle in 23 herds and 1,441 Cervidae in 12 herds.

Procedure

Discriminant analysis was used to determine the linear combination of antigens that accurately predicted the true Mycobacterium bovis infection status of the most animals. The resulting classification functions then were used to calculate the percentage of animals that were correctly classified (ie, sensitivity and specificity). The kappa statistic was calculated to evaluate different combinations of test results,

Results

Of the 23 cattle herds, 4 dairy and 2 beef herds were considered infected. Of the 12 Cervidae herds, 5 were considered infected. For cattle, the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA, using the discriminant function, were 56.4 and 65.6%, respectively. For Cervidae, the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA, using the discriminant function, were 78.6 and 70.0%, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that the 5- antigen ELISA would not be a good test for tuberculosis, especially in cattle, if used alone. However, when results of the ELISA and tuberculin test were interpreted in parallel, sensitivity of the combination was greater than sensitivity of either test alone. Similarly, when results of the 2 tests were interpreted in series, specificity of the combination was greater than specificity of either test alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 209:962-966)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To evaluate the use of technetium pertechnetate (99mTcO4) as a means of estimating gastric mucosal integrity, nuclear images of the empty stomach were obtained from 6 dogs at 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after iv administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Blood and gastric secretion samples were collected during the same time intervals. The left lateral-view image of the stomach was used to calculate the relative fraction of the dose in the stomach and the count density ratio. Between 20 and 40 minutes and 40 and 60 minutes, significant differences (P < 0.001) were apparent in the amount of 99mTcO4 in the stomach. Blood concentration of 99mTcO4 decreased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas gastric secretion concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001) over time. Qualitative assessment of the gastric nuclear scans and the statistical analytic results indicated that the optimal time for imaging the canine stomach was between 40 and 60 minutes after radiopharmaceutical administration. In a second study, the same dogs were pretreated with the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine and the cholinergic antagonist glycopyrrolate to block gastric secretions. Over time, changes in the relative dose fraction in the stomach and the density ratio were the same as values obtained during the experiment performed without use of cimetidine and glycopyrrolate. Results of the study indicate that nuclear imaging with 99mTcO4 outlines normal canine gastric mucosa and that pretreatment with cimetidine and glycopyrrolate has no effect on the quality of the gastric image.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A nuclear imaging technique of the stomach, using technetium pertechnetate (99mTcO4), was evaluated in healthy dogs. The stomach was first insufflated with room air, then filled with barium sulfate to induce mild distention, outlining the gastric wall. Six dogs were imaged twice: initially without use of drugs that might affect gastric secretion of 99mTcO4, then after pretreatment with cimetidine and glycopyrrolate. These scans established the appearance of the normal (control) stomach and compared the quality of the image in the same dogs not pretreated, then pretreated with cimetidine and glycopyrrolate before administration of 99mTcO4. Avascular defects were then surgically created on the greater curvature of the stomach of the same 6 dogs, and gastroscintigraphy was performed in similar manner. Significant (P < 0.05) quantitative differences were detected in the gastric images for scans of the avascular area, compared with various control scans. Qualitative assessment had overall accuracy of 90.28%. Results of the study reported here indicate that nuclear imaging can be a valuable diagnostic technique for detecting ischemic areas in the gastric wall of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Measurements of liver size were made from radiographs of 16 clinically normal anesthetized dogs. Two measurements were made from each of 3 views: right and left lateral and ventrodorsal. Each measurement was correlated with liver weight and volume. Liver weight and volume were also correlated with both measurements from the same radiograph multiplied together. All measurements, with the exception of ventrodorsal depth, correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with liver weight and volume. The multiplication of the 2 measurements made from the right lateral radiograph correlated most highly with liver weight. These data were then compared with those from similar studies involving liver measurements obtained from nuclear scintigraphic and ultrasonographic scans on the same dogs. The radiographic measurements made from the right lateral view had the highest correlation with liver weight, followed by the nuclear scintigraphic measurements made from the same position.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether lipid particle coalescence develops in veterinary parenteral nutrition (PN) admixture preparations that are kept at room temperature (23°C) for > 48 hours and whether that coalescence is prevented by admixture filtration, refrigeration, or agitation.

Sample Population—15 bags of veterinary PN solutions.

Procedures—Bags of a PN admixture preparation containing a lipid emulsion were suspended and maintained under different experimental conditions (3 bags/group) for 96 hours while admixtures were dispensed to simulate IV fluid administration (rate, 16 mL/h). Bags were kept static at 4°C (refrigeration); kept at 23°C (room temperature) and continuously agitated; kept at room temperature and agitated for 5 minutes every 4 hours; kept static at room temperature and filtered during delivery; or kept static at room temperature (control conditions). Admixture samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and examined via transmission electron microscopy to determine lipid particle diameters. At 96 hours, 2 samples were collected at a location distal to the filter from each bag in that group for bacterial culture.

Results—Distribution of lipid particle size in the control preparations and experimentally treated preparations did not differ significantly. A visible oil layer developed in continuously agitated preparations by 72 hours. Bacterial cultures of filtered samples yielded no growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated that the veterinary PN admixtures kept static at 23°C are suitable for use for at least 48 hours. Manipulations of PN admixtures appear unnecessary to prolong lipid particle stability, and continuous agitation may hasten lipid breakdown.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (hpa) axis was studied in 8 healthy cats after administration of supraphysiologic doses of methylprednisolone (mp). Ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCHR) administration increased cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) concentrations. Significant (P < 0.05) suppression of cortisol and a trend toward suppression of acth was observed after 1 week of mp administration. The hpa axis quickly recovered from suppressive effects of mp 1 week after administration of the steroid was discontinued. Side effects of ocrh administration were minimal in 7 cats; however, 1 cat had a severe hypotensive reaction. Clinical abnormalities were not associated with mp administration.

The hpa axis was suppressed by supraphysiologic doses of mp in all treated cats that lacked clinical signs consistent with iatrogenic hpa axis suppression. Despite the relatively active pars intermedia in cats, compared with human beings and dogs, feedback of mp on the hpa axis resulted in similar trends in ocrh-stimulated acth and cortisol concentrations as observed in human beings and dogs. Lack of consistent correlation between acth and cortisol concentrations was observed in 3 cats and possibly was related to the active pars intermedia in the cat.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research