Objective—To ultrasonographically measure the thickness of the individual wall layers of the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of dogs.
Animals—85 dogs with no clinical signs or ultrasonographic evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—Total wall thickness and thickness of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa were measured ultrasonographically in the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of each dog.
Results—The mucosal layer was the thickest layer of the duodenum and jejunum. There was a significant difference in thickness of the mucosal layer between small and large dogs. Mean ± SD thickness of the mucosal layer of the duodenum for small, medium, and large dogs was 2.4 ± 0.5 mm, 2.6 ± 0.6 mm, and 2.8 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Mean ± SD thickness of the mucosal layer of the jejunum for small, medium, and large dogs was 1.8 ± 0.4 mm, 2.0 ± 0.4 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The remaining wall layers of the duodenum and jejunum were similar in thickness, and there were no significant differences among small, medium, and large dogs. All layers contributed equally to the total colonic wall thickness. Mean ± SD thickness of the colonic wall for small, medium, and large dogs was 1.5 ± 0.3 mm, 1.4 ± 0.5 mm, and 1.6 ± 0.4 mm, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values for thickness of the wall layers of the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of dogs reported here may be useful for assessing gastrointestinal tract diseases primarily targeting a specific wall layer.
Objective—To obtain ultrasonographic reference values for the thickness of the pancreas and the diameter of the pancreatic duct in clinically normal dogs.
Animals—242 adult dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—The maximum pancreatic thickness and the diameter of the pancreatic duct were recorded ultrasonographically at the level of the left lobe, body, and right lobe of the pancreas.
Results—Mean ± SD pancreatic thickness measurements were as follows: left lobe, 6.5 ± 1.7 mm (n = 214); body, 6.3 ± 1.6 mm (155); and right lobe, 8.1 ± 1.8 mm (239). The mean pancreatic duct diameter was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm (n = 42) in the left lobe and 0.7 ± 0.2 mm (213) in the right lobe. The right pancreatic duct was visible in 213/242 (88.0%) dogs, and the left pancreatic duct was visible in 41/242 (16.9%) dogs. However, the body was visible in only 16/242 (6.6%) dogs. Pancreatic thickness and diameter of the pancreatic duct significantly increased with body weight in all lobes, but age was not correlated with the measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic reference values for the pancreas and pancreatic duct of dogs were determined. Results of this study indicated that the pancreatic duct was visible, especially in the right lobe of the pancreas. These values may be useful for the assessment of pancreatic abnormalities, such as chronic pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome in cats with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBTO) that undergo biliary diversion surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of cats with surgically confirmed EHBTO that underwent cholecystoenterostomy were reviewed.
Results—Clinical signs and physical examination findings included vomiting, anorexia, icterus, lethargy, weakness, and weight loss. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included high serum hepatic enzyme activities and serum bilirubin concentration. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 21 cats, and all 21 had findings consistent with EHBTO. Eleven of 15 cats in which blood pressure was monitored had intraoperative hypotension. Eighteen cats had anemia following surgery, and 14 cats had persistent hypotension. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction was a result of neoplasia in 9 cats and chronic inflammatory disease in 13. Fourteen cats survived long enough to be discharged from the hospital, but only 6 survived > 6 months after surgery, all of which had chronic inflammatory disease. Median survival time for cats with neoplasia (14 days) was significantly shorter than that for cats with inflammatory disease (255 days). No other variable was associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with EHBTO secondary to neoplasia have a poorer prognosis than cats with EHBTO secondary to chronic inflammatory disease. However, the overall prognosis for cats with EHBTO undergoing cholecystoenterostomy must be considered guarded to poor, and the incidence of perioperative complications is high.
Objective—To determine long-term outcome of dogs
with gallbladder mucocele.
Animals—30 dogs with gallbladder mucocele, including
23 that underwent cholecystectomy.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment,
history, and clinical, ultrasonographic, and
surgical findings. Follow-up information was obtained
for all dogs that survived the perioperative hospitalization
Results—23 dogs had signs of systemic illness; 7 had
no clinical signs. Median values for serum activities of
alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase,
serum total bilirubin concentration, and total WBC
count were significantly higher among dogs with gallbladder
rupture than among dogs without rupture.
Sensitivity of sonography for detection of rupture was
85.7%. Overall perioperative mortality rate for dogs
that underwent cholecystectomy was 21.7%; mortality
rate was not significantly greater for dogs with rupture.
Aerobic bacteria were isolated from the bile or gallbladder
wall in 8.7% of dogs. All 18 dogs discharged
from the hospital had complete resolution of clinical
signs. In dogs that underwent in-hospital reexamination,
serum liver enzyme activities were significantly
decreased, compared with preoperative activities.
Persistent increases in serum activities of 1 or more
liver enzymes were detected in 9 of 12 dogs; 6 of 12
dogs had persistent abnormalities in hepatic
echogenicity. Mean follow-up period was 13.9 months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cholecystectomy is an effective treatment
for gallbladder mucocele. Although perioperative mortality
rate is high, prognosis after discharge from the
hospital is excellent. Rupture of the gallbladder warrants
emergency surgical intervention but does not
preclude a positive outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc