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Objective—To characterize the use of antiemetic agents in dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV)–associated enteritis in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—77 dogs with CPV-associated enteritis.

Procedure—Medical records of 560 dogs with confirmed CPV-associated enteritis that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included vaccination against CPV infection within the preceding 2 weeks, hospitalization for < 24 hours or removal from the hospital against advice, or an incomplete record. Signalment, duration of hospitalization, and daily antiemetic administrations were assessed; WBC counts and clinical findings were used to classify dogs as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Results—77 dogs were included in the study; 55 (71%) received antiemetics (53 received metoclopramide at least once). Seventy-one dogs survived, and 6 dogs died (all 6 received antiemetics). Compared with dogs that did not receive antiemetics, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for antiemetictreated dogs. Daily values of rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates did not predict administration of antiemetics or duration of hospitalization; however, compared with survivors, SIRS developed more frequently among nonsurvivors. Assessment of emetic events recorded hourly for 17 dogs indicated that antiemetic treatment did not control emesis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many dogs with CPV-associated enteritis had persistent vomiting despite antiemetic administration. The apparent difference in duration of hospitalization between antiemetic-treated dogs and other dogs may reflect a difference in disease severity between groups, although antiemetic-associated adverse events (eg, signs of depression, hypotension, and immune modulation) may prolong hospitalization. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1787–1793)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the safety and efficacy of an electrolyte solution for oral administration (OES) for the correction of mild to moderate dehydration associated with hemorrhagic diarrhea in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized, noncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—20 dogs that had hemorrhagic diarrhea with < 3 episodes of vomiting.

Procedures—All dogs underwent testing for parvovirus infection, were given maropitant citrate to control emesis, and were offered an OES. Intravenous crystalloid fluid administration was performed when dogs refused the OES or had vomiting, a 5% increase in PCV, 5% decrease in body weight, serum creatinine or BUN concentration higher than at admission, or clinically important alterations in blood electrolyte or serum glucose concentrations.

Results—13 (65%) dogs voluntarily consumed the OES; 7 (35%) dogs refused the OES and received a balanced electrolyte solution IV instead. All 13 dogs in the OES group consumed the solution ≤ 5 hours after hospital admission. Eight and 16 hours after admission, PCV and serum total protein and BUN concentrations were significantly lower than at hospital admission in the OES group, whereas no significant changes were identified in venous blood pH, base excess, and concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, ionized magnesium, and lactate. The cost of treatment was significantly less for the OES group than for the IV treated group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Rehydration therapy with an OES was effective and safe in dogs with mild to moderate dehydration associated with hemorrhagic diarrhea. Potential benefits of this treatment approach for gastroenteritis in dogs, compared with traditional IV fluid administration, include lower owner-related veterinary costs and decreased staff time associated with treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:851–857)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to severity of neurologic injury or outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and 122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.

Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations recorded within 1 hour after admission were compared between case and control animals and among groups when case animals were grouped on the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.

Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly associated with severity of head trauma in dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs and cats with head trauma than in the control animals. However, blood glucose concentration was not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs and cats with head trauma may have hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was associated with severity of head trauma. However, degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma. Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1124–1129)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether dogs with naturally occurring canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis have laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—9 dogs with naturally occurring CPV enteritis and 9 age-matched control dogs.

Procedure—Blood was collected from all dogs within 24 hours of admission for thromboelastography (TEG) and determination of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin III (AT) activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) concentration, Ddimer concentration, and platelet count were obtained in dogs with CPV enteritis only. Records were reviewed for evidence of thrombosis or phlebitis.

Results—All 9 dogs with CPV enteritis had evidence of hypercoagulability, determined on the basis of significantly increased TEG maximum amplitude and decreased AT activity. Fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher in dogs with CPV enteritis than in control dogs. The aPTT was moderately prolonged in dogs with CPV enteritis, and FDP concentration was < 5 mg/ml in 7 of 9 dogs. No dogs had a measurable D-dimer concentration. Platelet counts were within reference range. Four of 9 dogs had clinical evidence of venous thrombosis or phlebitis associated with catheters. One dog had multifocal splenic thrombosis identified at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with CPV enteritis have a high prevalence of clinical thrombosis or phlebitis and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability without disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Thromboelastography may help identify hypercoagulable states in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1500–1504)

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Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 in a group of pet dogs that participate in flyball in Pennsylvania.

Design—Serologic survey.

Animals—Dogs attending a flyball tournament in Downingtown, Pa, from November 13 to 14, 2009.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from dogs following owner consent. Medical, travel, and activity history of the dogs for the previous 10.5 months was obtained from owners. Serum was harvested and submitted to Cornell University Diagnostic Laboratory for measurement of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 via hemagglutination inhibition testing.

Results—Serum samples were obtained from 100 of 256 dogs participating in the flyball event. Although 3 of the 100 (3%) samples had positive results for antibody against canine influenza, none of the associated dogs had respiratory signs of infection (eg, coughing, sneezing, or nasal or ocular discharge) in the 10.5 months prior to testing. Eleven dogs had a history of respiratory signs, but none of those dogs had antibody against canine influenza H3N8. In addition, none of the study dogs had been vaccinated against canine influenza H3N8.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although canine influenza is considered enzootic in certain areas of the country (eg, Pennsylvania or New York), this study identified a low seroprevalence in dogs considered at high risk for infection given their life conditions and geographic origins. More research is warranted to elucidate the prevalence of exposure to the H3N8 virus in competitive sporting dogs and determine whether vaccination is warranted in such dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area.

Design—Internet-based, cross-sectional study.

Animals—2,551 privately owned dogs.

Procedures—A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results—Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

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OBJECTIVE To determine usefulness of skin turgor and capillary refill time (CRT) for predicting changes in hydration status of working dogs after a 15-minute exercise period.

ANIMALS 9 exercise-conditioned working dogs between 8 and 108 months of age.

PROCEDURES Skin tent time (SkTT; time for tented skin on the forehead to return to an anatomically normal position) and CRT (time for occluded mucous membrane capillary vessels to return to the color visible before occlusion) were measured on dogs in a field setting and by video review. Body weight (BW), SkTT, CRT, and core body temperature were measured before and after a 15-minute exercise period. Exercise challenge was performed on days 1 and 8.

RESULTS Time (day 1 vs day 8) did not significantly affect results; therefore, data were pooled for the 2 trial days. Mean ± SE BW decreased (but not significantly) by 0.83 ± 0.27% after exercise. The SkTT increased significantly (both field setting and video review) after exercise. Correlation between SkTT results for the field setting and video review (r = 0.68) was significant. The CRT decreased (but not significantly) after exercise.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs became mildly dehydrated (mean BW loss, 0.83%) during a 15-minute exercise period, and the mild dehydration was evident as a visually detectable change in skin turgor. Monitoring the SkTT appeared to be a useful strategy for predicting small shifts in hydration status of dogs during exercise. The CRT decreased and was not a significant predictor of a change in hydration status.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare the cause of death (COD; whether by natural death or euthanasia for poor quality of life caused by a primary pathological condition) between search-and-rescue (SAR) dogs deployed to the World Trade Center, Pentagon, or Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island following the 9/11 terrorist attacks and SAR dogs that were not deployed to these sites.


95 deployed SAR dogs (exposed dogs) and 55 nondeployed SAR dogs (unexposed dogs).


Following natural death or euthanasia, 63 dogs (44 exposed and 19 unexposed) underwent a necropsy examination. For the remaining 87 dogs, the COD was categorized on the basis of information obtained from medical records or personal communications.


The median age of death was 12.8 years for exposed dogs and 12.7 years for unexposed dogs. The COD was not impacted by deployment status. In the 150 exposed and unexposed dogs, degenerative conditions were the most common COD followed by neoplasia. Respiratory disease was infrequent (overall, 7 [4.7%] dogs); 4 of 5 cases of pulmonary neoplasia occurred in unexposed dogs. However, in dogs that underwent necropsy, pulmonary particulates were reported significantly more often in exposed dogs (42/44 [95%]), compared with unexposed dogs (12/19 [63.2%]).


No difference was found in the COD on the basis of disease category and organ system involved between exposed and unexposed SAR dogs. The long life spans and frequency of death attributed to degenerative causes (ie, age-related causes) suggested that the risk of long-term adverse health effects in this population of SAR dogs was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Considerable efforts have been made to advance methods of CPR since its introduction 50 years ago. 1,2 As the understanding of CPR has evolved, so has the definition of its major components that contribute to survival. Twenty years ago, the AHA introduced the so-called chain of survival, which serves as a metaphor for the importance of approaching CPA in a timely, sequential, and comprehensive manner. As originally described, the components, or links, in this chain of survival included early access to help, early initiation of CPR, early defibrillation, and early advanced cardiac life support. 3 A number of

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