Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes).
Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.
Objective—To define the vertical position of the
patella in clinically normal large-breed dogs.
Sample Population—Cadavers of 13 clinically normal
Procedure—Both hind limbs were harvested with
intact stifle joints and mounted on a positioning device
that allowed full range of motion of the stifle joint.
Lateral radiographic views were obtained with the stifle
joints positioned at each of 5 angles (148°, 130°,
113°, 96°, and 75°). Vertical position of the patella
through a range of motion was depicted on a graph of
mean stifle angle versus corresponding mean proximal
patellar position (PPP) and distal patellar position
(DPP) relative to the femoral trochlea for each dog.
Ratio of length of the patellar ligament to length of the
patella (L:P) was determined for each dog. Overall
mean, SD, and 95% confidence intervals for L:P were
calculated for all dogs.
Results—Evaluation of vertical position of the patella
through a range of motion revealed a nearly linear relationship
between joint angle and PPP and joint angle
and DPP. Evaluation of L:P results did not reveal significant
differences between limbs (left or right) or among
joint angles. Overall mean ± SD L:P for all dogs was
1.68 ± 0.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.03).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The L:P
proved to be a repeatable measurement of vertical
patellar position, which is independent of stifle angles
from 75° to 148°. This measurement could be used as
a quantitative method for diagnosing patella alta and
patella baja in large-breed dogs. (Am J Vet Res