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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess changes in biochemical and biophysical properties of canine RBCs during cold (1° to 6°C) storage in a licensed RBC additive solution (the RBC preservation solution designated AS-1) supplemented with ascorbic acid.

SAMPLE Blood samples from 7 neutered male Greyhounds; all dogs had negative results when tested for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1.

PROCEDURES Blood was collected into citrate-phosphate-dextrose and stored in AS-1. Stored RBCs were supplemented with 7.1mM ascorbic acid or with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control samples). Several biochemical and biophysical properties of RBCs were measured, including percentage hemolysis, oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium, and the kinetic rate constants for O2 dissociation, carbon monoxide association, and nitric oxide dioxygenation.

RESULTS Greyhound RBCs stored in AS-1 supplemented with ascorbic acid did not have significantly decreased hemolysis, compared with results for the control samples, during the storage period.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, ascorbic acid did not reduce hemolysis during storage. Several changes in stored canine RBCs were identified as part of the hypothermic storage lesion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical and neurologic signs, diagnostic investigations, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of dogs presented with acute onset central cord syndrome (CCS).

ANIMALS

74 client-owned dogs evaluated for CCS at 5 referral hospitals between January 2016 and March 2021.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected from the medical records of each dog, including patient signalment, physical and neurologic examination results, presence of signs of respiratory failure, diagnostic imaging findings, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment and follow-up information. Descriptive statistics were calculated and bivariable analysis was performed to identify associations between selected variables.

RESULTS

2 neuroanatomic locations for the CCS were identified: C1-C5 spinal cord segments in 65 of 74 (88%) dogs and C6-T2 in 9 (12%) dogs. Neurolocalization did not correlate with the imaging findings in 43 (58%) dogs. Different diseases were associated with CCS. The most common condition was Hansen type I disk herniation in 27 (36%) dogs and hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion in 16 (22%) dogs. Main lesion locations within the vertebral column associated with CCS were C3-C4 and C4-C5 intervertebral disk spaces in 21 (28%) and 18 (24%) dogs, respectively. Outcome was favorable in 69 (93%) dogs. Patients presenting with hypoventilation were 14.7 times more likely to have a poor outcome.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CCS in dogs may be seen with lesions in the C1-C5 and C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Etiologies are variable. Total or partial improvement was achieved in most dogs with the appropriate treatment. Hypoventilation was associated with death.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of presumed postictal changes (PC) on brain MRI in epileptic dogs, describe their distribution, and recognize possible correlations with different epilepsy features.

ANIMALS

540 client-owned dogs with epilepsy and a complete medical record that underwent brain MRI at 4 veterinary referral hospitals between 2016 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected regarding signalment, seizure type, seizure severity, time between last seizure and MRI, and etiological classification of epilepsy. Postictal changes were considered when solitary or multiple intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions were observed on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted sequences, which were not confined to a vascular territory and showed no to mild mass effect and no to mild contrast enhancement.

RESULTS

Sixty-seven dogs (12.4%) showed MRI features consistent with PC. The most common brain sites affected were the piriform lobe, hippocampus, temporal neocortex, and cingulate gyrus. Dogs having suffered cluster seizures or status epilepticus were associated with a higher probability of occurrence of PC, compared to dogs with self-limiting seizures (OR 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.30). Suspected PC were detected both in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in those with structural epilepsy. Dogs with unknown-origin epilepsy were more likely to have presumed PC than were dogs with structural (OR 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.33) or idiopathic epilepsy (OR 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.87). Time between last seizure and MRI was significantly shorter in dogs with PC.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MRI lesions consistent with PC were common in epileptic dogs, and the brain distribution of these lesions varied. Occurrence of cluster seizures or status epilepticus, diagnosis of unknown origin epilepsy, and lower time from last seizure to MRI are predictors of suspected PC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the signalment, clinical findings, presumptive or definitive diagnosis, and outcome in cats with central cord syndrome (CCS).

ANIMALS

22 cats.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Cats evaluated for CCS at 7 referral hospitals between 2017 and 2021 were included. Information retrieved from medical records included signalment, physical and neurological examination findings, diagnostic investigations, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

RESULTS

Median age at presentation was 9 years. Two neuroanatomical localizations were associated with CCS: C1-C5 spinal cord segments in 17 (77.3%) cats and C6-T2 spinal cord segments in 5 (22.7%) cats. Neuroanatomical localization did not correlate with lesion location on MRI in 8 (36.3%) cats. The most common lesion location within the vertebral column was over the C2 and C4 vertebral bodies in 6 (27.2%) and 5 (22.7%) cats, respectively. Peracute clinical signs were observed in 11 (50%) cats, acute in 1 (4.5%), subacute in 4 (18%), and chronic and progressive signs were seen in 6 (40.9%) cats. The most common peracute condition was ischemic myelopathy in 8 (36.3%) cats, whereas neoplasia was the most frequently identified chronic etiology occurring in 5 (22.7%) cats. Outcome was poor in 13 (59%) cats, consisting of 4 of 11 (36.6%) of the peracute cases, 3 of 4 (75%) of the subacute cases, and 6 of 6 of the chronic cases.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Central cord syndrome can occur in cats with lesions in the C1-C5 and C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Multiple etiologies can cause CCS, most commonly, ischemic myelopathy and neoplasia. Prognosis depends on the etiology and onset of clinical signs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association