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A 5-year-old male Labrador Retriever weighing 29.1 kg (64 lb) was referred to the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of lameness of the right forelimb. The dog was used for hunting purposes but was also considered a family pet. The owner reported a slight decrease in duration and quality of the dog's athletic performance over the past year, with a definite lameness beginning approximately 6 weeks before the referral, after the dog had jumped down into a stream while hunting. Physical and orthopedic examinations revealed the dog was in good body condition (score of 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Problem

A 4-year-old male German Shepherd Dog weighing 33.2 kg (73 lb) was evaluated at the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for a 3-month history of decreased ability to perform athletically. The dog trained for and competed in agility events, and the owner had observed that the dog would refuse or not successfully complete jumps and A-frames during training and competition. According to the owner, the dog also had signs of mild, intermittent lameness of the right hind limb. When the owner first noticed the problem, the dog was evaluated by a veterinarian who diagnosed a possible hamstring

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 2-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for lameness with an abnormal, short-strided gait of the left hind limb of unknown duration. Physical examination revealed laxity and crepitus on palpation of the right hip joint, relative prominence of the left greater trochanter, and a bony mass-like effect on palpation of the left thigh. The left hip joint had limited range of motion (approx 40°) and crepitus and abnormal fulcrum action of the limb during flexion and extension. Routine bloodwork (CBC and serum biochemical analyses) had been performed 5 days prior to referral and did not reveal substantial abnormalities. Lateral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the quantity (concentration) and quality (molecular weight) of synovial fluid hyaluronan with respect to presence and severity of osteoarthritis in stifle joints of dogs.

Animals—21 purpose-bred dogs and 6 clinically affected large-breed dogs (cranial cruciate ligament [CrCL] disease with secondary osteoarthritis).

Procedures—Research dogs underwent arthroscopic surgery in 1 stifle joint to induce osteoarthritis via CrCL transection (CrCLt; n = 5 stifle joints), femoral condylar articular cartilage groove creation (GR; 6), or meniscal release (MR; 5); 5 had sham surgery (SH) performed. Contralateral stifle joints (n = 21) were used as unoperated control joints. Synovial fluid was obtained from research dogs at time 0 and 12 weeks after surgery and from clinically affected dogs prior to surgery. All dogs were assessed for lameness, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, and pathologic findings on arthroscopy as well as for quantity and quality of hyaluronan.

Results—Clinically affected dogs had significantly greater degrees of pathologic findings, compared with dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis (ie, those with CrCLt, GR, and MR stifle joints), and with respect to lameness scores, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, pathologic findings on arthroscopy, and synovial fluid hyaluronan concentration. Synovial fluid from stifle joints of dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis had hyaluronan bands at 35 kd on western blots that synovial fluid from SH and clinically affected stifle joints did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synovial fluid hyaluronan quantity and quality were altered in stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis, compared with control stifle joints. A specific hyaluronan protein fragment may be associated with early pathologic changes in affected joints.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI for diagnosing medial meniscal lesions in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

ANIMALS 26 dogs (31 stifle joints) with CCL deficiency.

PROCEDURES A single surgeon physically examined each dog and performed ultrasonography and arthroscopy of affected stifle joints to identify medial meniscal lesions. Video recordings of the arthroscopic procedure were saved and subsequently reviewed by the same surgeon and by a second surgeon working independently and blinded to results of all examinations. A radiologist blinded to results of all examinations evaluated MRI scans of the affected joints. Correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, and specificity of ultrasonography and MRI were calculated twice, with each of the 2 surgeons' arthroscopic assessments used as the reference standard.

RESULTS Compared with arthroscopic examination by the unblinded surgeon, ultrasonography had a CCR of 90%, sensitivity of 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 100%), and specificity of 82% (95% CI, 48% to 97%). For MRI, these values were 84%, 75% (51% to 90%), and 100% (68% to 100%), respectively. Compared with arthroscopic assessment by the blinded surgeon, ultrasonography had a CCR of 84%, sensitivity of 86% (95% CI, 64% to 96%), and specificity of 78% (95% CI, 40% to 96%). For MRI, these values were 77%, 68% (45% to 82%), and 100% (63% to 100%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These data suggested imperfect performance but clinical usefulness of both ultrasonography and MRI for diagnosing medial meniscal lesions in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

Sample—Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5).

Procedures—Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods.

Results—No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 2.5-year-old spayed female Persian cat was evaluated for acute inability to close its mouth.

Clinical Findings—A wry-mouth malocclusion was evident, and the right side of the mandible was longer than the left side. The right mandibular tooth row appeared to be lowered. The lower jaw was persistently maintained in an open position. The presumptive diagnosis was open-mouth jaw locking. Diagnostic imaging with computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed for definitive diagnosis and to achieve a better understanding of the lesions. Imaging revealed locking of the right ramus of the mandible, which was displaced ventrolaterally, causing the coronoid process to impinge on the right zygomatic arch.

Treatment and Outcome—A bilateral partial ostectomy of the rostroventral margins of the zygomatic arches with an autogenous fat graft implantation was performed. The cat recovered without complications and by the following morning was bright, alert, and responsive and eating canned cat food comfortably. One year after surgery, the owner reported that the cat had continued to function well, was eating normally, and had not had any observed locking episodes since surgery.

Clinical Relevance—Unlike radiographic imaging, computed tomography may be used to create 3-dimensional reconstructions of structures in cases of suspected open-mouth jaw locking; improve evaluation of the lesions; and improve decision-making and client education for diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 9-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of dysphagia and coughing of 6 months' duration. The owner had also noticed a change in the dog's bark. The clinical signs were unresponsive to administration of amoxicillin, diphenhydramine, and metoclopramide hydrochloride. The dog also had a prior history of urolithiasis and bilateral otitis externa. On initial physical examination, oral evaluation revealed a fracture of the right maxillary canine tooth and atrophy of the left side of the tongue. Rectal temperature was 38.7°C (101.7°F), heart rate was 108 beats/min, and respiratory rate was 20 breaths/min. A gag reflex or cough could

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association