Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Craig W. Miller x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether free radicals are produced in ischemic and reperfused canine skeletal muscle, whether free radicals can be detected from effluent blood by use of spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and whether free radical-induced skeletal muscle damage is detectable by use of light microscopy.

Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and both gracilis muscles were isolated, leaving only the major vascular pedicle intact. Ischemia was induced in 1 flap for 4 hours; the contralateral flap served as the control. Ischemic flaps were then reperfused for 15 minutes. α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, a spin-trapping agent, was administered intravenously to each dog 1 hour prior to reperfusion. Following reperfusion, effluent blood samples from muscle flaps were obtained and processed for EPR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic evaluation, and dogs were euthanatized.

Results—Spin adducts were not detected in blood from control flaps. However, spin adducts were detected in all ischemic-reperfused muscle flaps. Principal signals identified were characteristic of oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals. Significantly more muscle damage was detected in ischemic-reperfused flaps, compared with control flaps.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Free radicals may be an important component of injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion of canine skeletal muscle. Spin-trap adducts of free radicals can be detected in effluent blood of canine muscle flaps by use of spin-trapping EPR spectroscopy. Spin-trapping EPR spectroscopy may be useful for the study of antioxidants and free radical scavengers in attenuating ischemia and reperfusionmediated skeletal muscle damage. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:384–388)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether adenosine pretreatment attenuates free radical production and muscle damage in ischemic and reperfused canine skeletal muscle.

Animals—9 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and both gracilis muscles were isolated, leaving only the major vascular pedicle intact. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was injected into the artery supplying the control flap, whereas adenosine (10 mg) was injected into the contralateral artery. Ischemia was induced in both flaps for 4 hours. α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone was administered IV to each dog 1 hour prior to reperfusion. Following 15 minutes of reperfusion, effluent blood samples from each muscle flap were obtained and processed for spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic evaluation, and dogs were euthanatized.

Results—EPR spectra of strong intensity were obtained from analysis of 5 of 9 paired samples. Signals identified were characteristic of oxygen- and carbon-centered free radical adducts. Signal intensity of spectra from adenosine-treated flaps was significantly less than that of control flaps; mean signal attenuation was 36% in the adenosine-treated group. Histologic evaluation of muscle flaps did not reveal significant differences between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of canine muscle flaps with adenosine prior to a period of ischemia reduced but did not completely attenuate free radical production after reperfusion. However, adenosine pretreatment did not affect histologic abnormalities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:175–180)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the level of clinical agreement between 2 methods for the measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE).

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—77 dogs.

Procedure—Oxygen consumption (O2) and CO2 production (CO2) were measured with an open-flow indirect calorimeter in healthy (n = 10) and ill (67) dogs. Measurements were collected at 3 time periods on 2 days. The O2 and the CO2 measurements were then used to calculate the REE values.

Results—Mean values of measured (MREE) and predicted (PREE) REEs in healthy dogs and a dog with medical illnesses or trauma were not significantly different. There was a significant difference on day 2 between the MREE and PREE in the group of dogs recovering from major surgery. More importantly, there was significant variation between the PREE and MREE on an individual-dog basis. The PREE only agreed to within ± 20% of the MREE in 51% to 57% of the dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The level of agreement between these two methods for determining the 24-hour REE was poor in individual dogs. The level of disagreement between the 2 methods indicates that these methods may not be used interchangeably in a clinical setting. Measurement of REE by use of indirect calorimetry may be the only reliable method of determining REE in an individual ill or healthy dog. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:58–64)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.

Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6 anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.

Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry. Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry before spirometry was significantly greater than that obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779 and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series were combined. When the first series was discounted, ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2, respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2 series were discounted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period should be allowed, the first series of observations should be discounted, multiple serial measurements should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1761–1767).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research