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To describe clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological features of an outbreak of leptospirosis in dogs in Maricopa County, Ariz, from January 2016 through June 2017.


71 case and 281 control dogs.


Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, suspect, or not a case on the basis of medical record data that fulfilled clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological criteria. Potential exposures were assessed by owner survey. For the case-control investigation, control dogs were recruited through owner completion of a July 2017 survey. Summary statistics and ORs for case dog lifestyle factors were reported.


54 dogs were classified as confirmed and 17 as probable cases. For 4 dogs of a household cluster (5 confirmed and 3 probable), the highest microscopic agglutination titer was for serovar Djasiman (Leptospira kirschneri detected by PCR assay), and for 13 dogs of a community outbreak (49 confirmed and 14 probable cases), the highest titer was for serovar Canicola (Leptospira interrogans detected by PCR assay). The 44 case dogs included in the case-control investigation were 7.7 (95% CI, 3.5 to 16.7) and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.3 to 6.6) as likely as control dogs to have visited dog daycare or to have been kenneled overnight at a boarding facility, respectively, 30 days prior to the onset of clinical signs or diagnosis.


Diagnostic and epidemiological findings indicated 2 outbreaks. Transmission where dogs congregated likely propagated the community outbreak. Outbreaks of leptospiral infections can occur in regions of low prevalence, and a dog's exposure to areas where dogs congregate should be considered when making Leptospira vaccination recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the potential synergy between bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and 3-methylindole (3MI) in inducing respiratory disease in cattle.


20 mixed-breed beef calves.


A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with random assignment to the following 4 treatment groups: unchallenged control, BRSV challenge exposure (5 × 104 TCID50 by aerosolization and 5.5 × 105 TCID50 by intratracheal inoculation), 3MI challenge exposure (0.1 g/kg of body weight, PO), and combined BRSV-3MI challenge exposure. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Serum 3MI concentrations, WBC counts, PCV, total plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined throughout the experiment. Surviving cattle were euthanatized 7 days after challenge exposure. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at postmortem examination.


Clinical respiratory disease was more acute and severe in cattle in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group than in cattle in the other groups. All 5 cattle in this group and 3 of 5 cattle treated with 3MI alone died or were euthanatized prior to termination of the experiment. Mean lung displacement volume was greatest in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group. Gross and histologic examination revealed that pulmonary lesions were also most severe for cattle in this group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Feedlot cattle are commonly infected with BRSV, and 3MI is produced by microflora in the rumen of all cattle. Our results suggest that there is a synergy between BRSV and 3MI. Thus, controlling combined exposure may be important in preventing respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:563–570)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research