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  • Author or Editor: Craig H. Johnson x
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Objective—–To compare transfixation and standard full-limb casts for prevention of in vitro displacement of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site in horses.

Sample Population—6 forelimbs from 6 horses euthanatized for reasons not related to the musculoskeletal system.

Procedure—A 30° osteotomy was performed in the mid-diaphysis of the third metacarpal bone. Two 4.5-mm cortical bone screws were placed across the osteotomy site to maintain alignment during casting. Two 6.35-mm Steinmann pins were placed from a lateral-to-medial direction in the distal aspect of the radius. A full-limb cast that incorporated the pins was applied. An extensometer was positioned in the osteotomy site through a window placed in the dorsal aspect of the cast, and after removal of the screws, displacement was recorded while the limb was axially loaded to 5,340 N (1,200 lb). Pins were removed, and the standard full-limb cast was tested in a similar fashion.

Results—The transfixation cast significantly reduced displacement across the osteotomy site at 445 N (100 lb), 1,112 N (250 lb), 2,224 N (500 lb), and 4,448 N (1,000 lb), compared with the standard cast.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A full-limb transfixation cast provides significantly greater resistance than a standard full-limb cast against axial collapse of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site when the bone is placed under axial compression. Placement of full-limb transfixation casts should be considered for the management of unstable fractures of the third metacarpal bone in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1633–1635)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



3 dogs with retroperitoneal masses (2 renal and 1 located near the diaphragm) were treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).


Dogs between 11 and 13 years of age weighing between 13.7 and 43.8 kg had either a renal mass (n = 2) or a mass located in the caudodorsal aspect of the retroperitoneal space near the right side of the diaphragm (1). Cytology revealed that one of the renal masses and the mass located near the diaphragm were malignant neoplasias. Findings on cytologic evaluation of a sample of the other renal mass was nondiagnostic. Maximum mass diameters ranged between 1.4 and 2.5 cm.


All dogs were treated by percutaneous MWA. Probes were directed into tumors by use of ultrasound and CT guidance, and microwave energy was applied to each mass. Findings on imaging of each mass following MWA was consistent with successful treatment. No intraprocedural or major postprocedural complications occurred, and all dogs were discharged from the hospital within 3 days of treatment. Two dogs died at 3 and 21 months after MWA with no known local recurrence; 1 dog was still alive 64 months after treatment.


Although the indications for MWA in the treatment of neoplasia in companion animals are limited, the outcomes of dogs in the present report provided preliminary evidence that percutaneous MWA can be safely used to effectively treat retroperitoneal neoplasia. This procedure was successfully performed with image guidance in all 3 dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.


20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.


In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.


Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).


Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association