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Abstract

Case Description—2 juvenile (17 and 19 months of age) male American bison (Bison bison) were examined because of acute bilateral hind limb weakness and ataxia; 1 animal also had urinary incontinence.

Treatment and Outcome—Given the clinical signs and rapid deterioration in the condition of these 2 animals, obtaining a definitive diagnosis was considered essential to minimizing the risk of disease in the remaining bison herd and among other animals at the facility. Therefore, both affected animals were euthanized. At necropsy, no gross abnormalities were seen. Histologic examination of sections of the brains from both animals revealed mild to moderate multifocal aggregates of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in perivascular regions of the meninges and gray matter of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Systematic examination of multiple sections of brain and spinal cord revealed evidence of nematode sections and aberrant parasite migration.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that CNS migration of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in American bison may cause clinical signs. These findings have implications for the management of captive bison and free-ranging bison sharing ranges with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the definitive host, and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of orally administered aspirin to mitigate 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced respiratory tract disease and reduced rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—244 beef cattle.

Procedure—In a masked, randomized, controlled field trial, calves were untreated (controls) or received a single orally administered dose of aspirin (31.2 g) on entry into a feedlot. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured on days 0, 3, and 6. Rumen 3MI concentration was measured on day 3. Cattle were observed daily for clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Lungs were evaluated at slaughter for gross pulmonary lesions.

Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) in cattle treated with aspirin, compared with control cattle, was 0.06 kg greater in the backgrounding unit and 0.03 kg greater for the overall feeding period. Neither serum nor rumen 3MI concentrations appeared to modify this effect. Cattle treated with aspirin were more likely to be treated for respiratory tract disease. Mortality rate, gross pulmonary lesions, and serum and rumen 3MI concentrations were similar between groups. Increased rumen 3MI concentration was associated with a small difference in risk of lung fibrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle given a single orally administered dose of aspirin on feedlot entry had higher MDG in the backgrounding unit and for the overall feeding period, but this finding could not be attributed to mitigation of effects of 3MI. This may have been influenced by low peak 3MI production and slow rates of gain. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1209–1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the potential synergy between bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and 3-methylindole (3MI) in inducing respiratory disease in cattle.

Animals

20 mixed-breed beef calves.

Procedure

A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with random assignment to the following 4 treatment groups: unchallenged control, BRSV challenge exposure (5 × 104 TCID50 by aerosolization and 5.5 × 105 TCID50 by intratracheal inoculation), 3MI challenge exposure (0.1 g/kg of body weight, PO), and combined BRSV-3MI challenge exposure. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Serum 3MI concentrations, WBC counts, PCV, total plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined throughout the experiment. Surviving cattle were euthanatized 7 days after challenge exposure. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at postmortem examination.

Results

Clinical respiratory disease was more acute and severe in cattle in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group than in cattle in the other groups. All 5 cattle in this group and 3 of 5 cattle treated with 3MI alone died or were euthanatized prior to termination of the experiment. Mean lung displacement volume was greatest in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group. Gross and histologic examination revealed that pulmonary lesions were also most severe for cattle in this group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Feedlot cattle are commonly infected with BRSV, and 3MI is produced by microflora in the rumen of all cattle. Our results suggest that there is a synergy between BRSV and 3MI. Thus, controlling combined exposure may be important in preventing respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:563–570)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research