Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male Tibetan Mastiff was evaluated because of a visibly enlarged blood vessel and progressively worsening swelling of the right hind limb.
Clinical Findings—On physical examination, the right hind limb was markedly larger than the left hind limb and the dog was minimally weight bearing on the affected limb. A bruit was auscultated over the affected region. Ultrasonography of the tarsal region of the right hind limb revealed an artery with turbulent flow that communicated with venous drainage. A CT scan confirmed the presence of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
Treatment and Outcome—Embolization of the AVM with a liquid embolic agent (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide) was elected. An arteriogram was performed prior to treatment and delineated the vessels that were targeted for embolization. The embolic agent was infused into the AVM, and a postinjection arteriogram confirmed complete occlusion of the AVM nidus and normal arterial flow to the paw with subsequent normal venous drainage. The circumference of the abnormal paw was 51 cm before the procedure and 22.9 cm at 4 weeks after the procedure. Additionally, the gait of the dog dramatically improved. No complications associated with the procedure developed.
Clinical Relevance—Peripheral AVMs in dogs are uncommon, and described treatment options are limited and generally associated with serious morbidity. A liquid embolic agent, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was successfully administered in this case, and no morbidity was observed secondary to the procedure. Clinical success was characterized by substantial improvement in limb swelling and marked improvement in the gait of the dog.
3 dogs with retroperitoneal masses (2 renal and 1 located near the diaphragm) were treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).
Dogs between 11 and 13 years of age weighing between 13.7 and 43.8 kg had either a renal mass (n = 2) or a mass located in the caudodorsal aspect of the retroperitoneal space near the right side of the diaphragm (1). Cytology revealed that one of the renal masses and the mass located near the diaphragm were malignant neoplasias. Findings on cytologic evaluation of a sample of the other renal mass was nondiagnostic. Maximum mass diameters ranged between 1.4 and 2.5 cm.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All dogs were treated by percutaneous MWA. Probes were directed into tumors by use of ultrasound and CT guidance, and microwave energy was applied to each mass. Findings on imaging of each mass following MWA was consistent with successful treatment. No intraprocedural or major postprocedural complications occurred, and all dogs were discharged from the hospital within 3 days of treatment. Two dogs died at 3 and 21 months after MWA with no known local recurrence; 1 dog was still alive 64 months after treatment.
Although the indications for MWA in the treatment of neoplasia in companion animals are limited, the outcomes of dogs in the present report provided preliminary evidence that percutaneous MWA can be safely used to effectively treat retroperitoneal neoplasia. This procedure was successfully performed with image guidance in all 3 dogs.
To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.
20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.
In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.
Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.