OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of metronomic cyclophosphamide (MC) chemotherapy (primary treatment of interest) with adjuvant meloxicam administration as maintenance treatment for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following limb amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 39 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma that underwent limb amputation and completed carboplatin chemotherapy from January 2011 through December 2015.
PROCEDURES Dogs were grouped by whether carboplatin chemotherapy had been followed with or without MC chemotherapy (15 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The Breslow rank test was used to assess whether MC chemotherapy was associated with overall survival time (OST) and disease progression-free time (PFT) after limb amputation.
RESULTS 19 dogs received carboplatin and MC chemotherapy, and 20 dogs received only carboplatin chemotherapy. No differences were identified between these groups regarding age, reproductive status, body weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, or histologic grade or subtype of osteosarcoma. Median duration of MC chemotherapy for dogs in the carboplatin-MC group was 94 days (range, 7 to 586 days); this treatment was discontinued for 11 (58%) dogs when cystitis developed. Overall, 11 (28%) dogs survived to the time of analysis, for a median follow-up period of 450 days (range, 204 to 1,400 days). No difference in median PFT or OST was identified between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maintenance MC chemotherapy following limb amputation and completed carboplatin chemotherapy was associated with no increase in PFT or OST in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Cystitis was common in MC-treated dogs, and prophylactic treatment such as furosemide administration could be considered to reduce the incidence of cystitis in such dogs.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in the lungs of cattle at various times after arrival at a feedlot, to measure the relationship between clinical disease status and the concentration and genotype of M bovis within the lungs, and to investigate changes in the genotype of M bovis over time.
Sample—Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 328 healthy or pneumonic beef cattle and 20 M bovis isolates obtained from postmortem samples.
Procedures—The concentration of M bovis in BALF was determined via real-time PCR assays, and M bovis isolates from BALF were genotyped via amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.
Results—Prevalence of M bovis in BALF was 1 of 60 (1.7%) at arrival to a feedlot and 26 of 36 (72.2%) and 36 of 42 (85.7%) at ≤ 15 days and 55 days after arrival, respectively. Neither the concentration nor the AFLP type of M bovis in BALF was correlated with clinical disease status. The M bovis AFLP type differed between early and later sampling periods in 14 of 17 cattle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings implied spread of M bovis among calves and suggested that host factors and copathogens may determine disease outcomes in infected calves. Chronic pulmonary infection with M bovis may represent a dynamic situation of bacterial clearance and reinfection with strains of different AFLP type, rather than continuous infection with a single clone. These findings impact our understanding of why cattle with chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome inadequately respond to antimicrobial treatment.