Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, diazepam, and the combination of ketamine and diazepam on intraocular pressures (IOPs) in clinically normal dogs in which premedication was not administered.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups. Dogs received ketamine alone (5 mg/kg [KET5] or 10 mg/kg [KET10], IV), ketamine (10 mg/kg) with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, IV; KETVAL), diazepam alone (0.5 mg/kg, IV; VAL), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg, IV; SAL). Intraocular pressures were measured immediately before and after injection and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection.
Results—IOP was increased over baseline values immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group and immediately after injection in the KETVAL group. Compared with the SAL group, the mean change in IOP was greater immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group. The mean IOP increased to 5.7, 3.2, 3.1, 0.8, and 0.8 mm Hg over mean baseline values in the KET5, KET10, KETVAL, SAL, and VAL groups, respectively. All dogs in the KET5 and most dogs in the KETVAL and KET10 groups had an overall increase in IOP over baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with baseline values and values obtained from dogs in the SAL group, ketamine administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg, IV, caused a significant and clinically important increase in IOP in dogs in which premedication was not administered. Ketamine should not be used in dogs with corneal trauma or glaucoma or in those undergoing intraocular surgery.
Objective—To determine the effects of treatment
with and without adjuvant radiation therapy on recurrence
of ocular and adnexal squamous cell carcinoma
(SCC) at specific anatomic locations in horses.
Procedures—Medical records of horses with histologically
confirmed ocular and adnexal SCC evaluated
from 1985 to 2002 were reviewed. Sex, breed, age,
type of treatment, location, and recurrence of SCC
were recorded. Two treatment groups determined by
recurrence of SCCs treated with and without adjuvant
radiation therapy were established.
Results—The anatomic site with the highest recurrence
rate was the limbus (junction of the cornea and
sclera) or bulbar conjunctiva (47.7%), independent of
treatment group. There was a significant difference in
recurrence rates of ocular and adnexal SCCs between
the 2 treatment groups, independent of anatomic location.
Recurrence rates of SCCs treated with and without
adjuvant radiation therapy were 11.9% and 44.1%,
respectively. Recurrence rates for SCCs of the eyelid,
limbus or bulbar conjunctiva, and cornea treated with
adjuvant radiation therapy were significantly different
from those for SCCs treated without adjuvant radiation
therapy. The most frequently represented anatomic
site for ocular and adnexal SCCs was the eyelid
(28.7%). Coat color, breed, and the interaction of age
and breed had a significant effect on tumor recurrence
regardless of treatment type and anatomic location.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that ocular and adnexal SCCs treated with adjuvant
radiation therapy had a significantly lower recurrence
rate, compared with SCCs treated without adjuvant
radiation therapy, independent of anatomic location.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1733–1738)