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  • Author or Editor: Corinne R. Sweeney x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize pneumothorax in horses and to describe clinical signs, diagnostic testing, and clinical outcome of horses with pneumothorax.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with pneumothorax were reviewed to obtain information on signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic testing, treatment, and clinical outcome.

Results—Horses developed pneumothorax secondary to pleuropneumonia (17 horses), open wounds of the thorax (9), closed trauma to the thorax (7), surgery on the upper portion of the respiratory tract (3), and surgery involving the thoracic cavity (1); 3 horses had pneumothorax of unknown cause. Clinical signs included tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, lack of lung sounds on auscultation of the dorsal aspect of the thorax, fever, tachycardia, signs of depression or anxiousness, and cough. Radiography and ultrasonography were useful to definitively diagnose pneumothorax. Pneumothorax was bilateral in 47.5% (19/40) and unilateral in 42.5% (17/40) of horses; designation of unilateral versus bilateral was not recorded in the remaining 4 horses. Horses with pneumothorax secondary to pleuropneumonia more commonly had unilateral pneumothorax (64.7% for unilateral vs 29.4% for bilateral; not specified for 1 horse). Horses with pneumothorax secondary to pleuropneumonia were less likely to survive than horses with pneumothorax secondary to other causes (35.3 vs 69.6% survived, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuropneumonia is an important cause of pneumothorax in horses. Classic clinical signs of pneumothorax may not be evident. Radiography, ultrasonography, or both may be required for diagnosis. Prognosis for survival is better for horses with pneumothorax not associated with pleuropneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1955–1959)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine total protein concentration and cell counts of sequentially collected samples of CSF to determine whether blood contamination decreases in subsequent samples and whether formulas used to correct nucleated cell count and total protein concentration are accurate.

Design—Case series.

Animals—22 horses.

Procedure—For each horse, 3 or 4 sequential 2-ml samples of CSF were collected from the subarachnoid space in the lumbosacral region into separate syringes, and blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Total protein concentration, nucleated cell count, and RBC counts were determined in all samples.

Results—Among 3 sequential samples, total protein concentration and RBC count were significantly lower in samples 2 and 3, compared with sample 1. Nucleated cell count was significantly lower in sample 3, compared with sample 1. Among 4 sequential samples, total protein concentration and RBC count were significantly lower in samples 2, 3, and 4, compared with sample 1. Nucleated cell count was significantly lower in samples 3 and 4, compared with sample 1. For 3 correction formulas, significant differences in corrected values for nucleated cell count and total protein concentration were detected between sample 1 and sample 3 or 4.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Because iatrogenic blood contamination decreases in sequential CSF samples, a minimum of 3 samples should be collected before submitting the final sample for analysis. Formulas to correct nucleated cell count and total protein concentration are inaccurate and should not be used to correct for blood contamination in CSF samples. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:54–57)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the safety of sodium bisulfate for use in horse barn environments by determining its irritant effect on skin and hooves.

Animals—6 female mixed-breed ponies.

Procedure—Sodium bisulfate was applied to clipped intact skin of 6 ponies to evaluate its irritant effect after single (48 hours) and repetitive (6 h/d for 10 days) applications; similar areas of skin were used as untreated control sites. In addition, sodium bisulfate was applied to the sole of both front hooves of each pony and covered with wet gauze, and the entire hoof was covered with adhesive tape for 48 hours.

Results—Contact with moistened sodium bisulfate for 48 hours had no effect on pony skin. Contact with sodium bisulfate for 6 hours on 10 consecutive days did not cause gross changes but did cause mild to moderate microscopic changes including epidermal necrosis, hyperkeratosis, capillary congestion, edema, and diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. All changes were limited to the epidermis and superficial dermis. Gross changes in hoof sole, signs of lameness, and increase in digital pulse pressure or pulse intensity were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of contact with sodium bisulfate in this study was in excess of that expected under typical husbandry conditions. Despite this fact, gross changes in skin and hooves were not detected. Microscopic lesions were confined to the epidermis and superficial dermis. Results suggest that contact with sodium bisulfate under these conditions is safe. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1418–1421)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with an increased likelihood that horses would have a serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—188 healthy client-owned horses.

Procedures—A single serum sample from each horse was tested for SeM-specific antibody titer with an ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with having a titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Results—Age, breed, and vaccination status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600. The odds of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600 increased by a factor of 1.07 with each 1-year increase in age. Quarter Horses and horses of other breeds were 4.08 times as likely as were Thoroughbreds and warmbloods to have a titer this high. Horses that had previously received an intranasal S equi vaccine were 4.7 times as likely as were horses without any history of vaccination to have a titer this high.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that older horses, horses other than Thoroughbreds and warmbloods, and horses that had been vaccinated with an attenuated-live intranasal S equi vaccine between 1 and 3 years previously had an increased likelihood of having a serum SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine application rate and effectiveness of sodium bisulfate to decrease the fly population in a horse barn environment.

Sample Population—12 privately owned farms in southeastern Pennsylvania.

Procedure—Application rates of sodium bisulfate were approximately 2.3 kg/stall, 1.1 kg/stall, and 0.5 kg/stall. Two or 3 stalls were treated, and 1 or 2 stalls were not treated (control stalls) at each farm. Farm personnel applied sodium bisulfate in treated stalls daily for 7 days. Fly tapes were hung from the same site in treated and control stalls. After 24 hours, the fly tape was removed, flies adhering to the sticky surface were counted and recorded, and a new fly tape was hung. This procedure was repeated daily during each of the testing periods.

Results—Following the application of 2.3 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, the numbers of flies collected on the fly tape were significantly decreased in treated stalls, compared with control stalls during the same time periods on 9 of the 12 farms evaluated. Following the application of 1.1 kg of sodium bisulfate/ stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in treated stalls on 6 of the 9 farms evaluated. Following the application of 0.5 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in the treated stalls on 3 of the 4 farms evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings suggest that sodium bisulfate would be effective for fly control in horse barns. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:910–913)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether results of physical or radiographic examination or biochemical analyses in adult racehorses with primary lung abscesses were associated with ability to race following treatment.

Design—Multiple-center retrospective study.

Animals—25 Standardbreds and 20 Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with a primary lung abscess that were admitted to any of 4 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Results of physical examination, laboratory testing, and thoracic radiography were reviewed. Racing performance after treatment was compared with performance before illness and with performance of the general population of racehorses of similar age, sex, and breed.

Results—23 of 25 Standardbreds and 13 of 20 Thoroughbreds raced after diagnosis and treatment of a lung abscess. Most horses had a solitary abscess in the dorsal to caudodorsal lung fields. Results of initial physical examination, biochemical analyses, and culture and identification of the microbial isolate were not associated with whether a horse returned to racing. For horses that had raced prior to the illness, race performance after treatment of the lung abscess was not significantly different from performance before the illness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of racing performance in those horses that resumed racing after treatment, long-term residual lung damage did not develop in horses with primary lung abscesses that were treated appropriately. It is not known whether horses that recovered would be more likely to bleed from the site of a prior infection when resuming strenuous exercise and whether lung abscesses contributed to a failure to resume racing. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1282–1287)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association