Objective—To determine risk factors associated with Cryptococcus gattii infection in dogs and cats residing on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada.
Design—Matched case-control study.
Animals—20 dogs and 29 cats with C gattii infection and matched controls.
Procedure—Dogs and cats with a confirmed or probable diagnosis of cryptococcosis resulting from infection with C gattii were enrolled by veterinarians, and owners completed a questionnaire designed to obtain information pertaining to potential risk factors for the disease. Owners of matched control animals were also interviewed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals or paired t tests were calculated to determine significant associations.
Results—Animals were enrolled during 2 noncontiguous periods in August 2001 to February 2002 (8 dogs and 9 cats enrolled) and May to December 2003 (12 dogs and 20 cats enrolled). Risk factors significantly associated with development of cryptococcosis included residing within 10 km of a logging site or other area of commercial soil disturbance, above-average level of activity of the animal, travelling of the animal on Vancouver Island, hunting by the animal, and owners hiking or visiting a botanic garden.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs and cats that were active or that lived near a site of commercial environmental disturbance had a significantly increased risk of developing C gattii infection. Veterinarians should communicate these risks to owners in context because cryptococcosis was an uncommon disease in this population.
Objective—To compare calibration methods for digital radiography in terms of measurement accuracy and interobserver variability.
Sample—Digital radiographic images of a 155-mm-long Steinmann pin.
Procedures—Measurement of pin length on digital radiographs was determined with a 25.4-mm-diameter calibration ball and commercially available software program via 3 calibration methods (ie, no calibration, autocalibration, and manual calibration). Digital radiographs of the calibration ball and pin were obtained with each placed at various vertical heights from the table (7 heights) and horizontal distances from the center of the beam (4 distances). Measurements of pin length on digital radiographs were made by 4 observers who were blinded to the orientation of the calibration ball and pin.
Results—Pin lengths obtained by each calibration method were significantly different from each other and from the true value. Manual calibration was the most accurate. There was no significant interobserver variability in measurements. There was no significant change in measurements when the calibration ball was moved horizontally, but pin length measurements changed significantly when the ball was moved vertically (away from the table) with an approximate magnification error of 1% per centimeter of distance between the calibration ball and pin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For digital radiography, manual calibration is recommended to achieve the most accurate measurements. Ideally, the calibration ball should be placed at the same vertical height as the object to be measured; however, if this cannot be achieved, the magnification error can be expected to be approximately 1% per centimeter of distance.
Objective—To categorize histologic lesions affecting the tongue, determine the frequency with which they develop, and identify risk factors associated with their development in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Diagnostic reports of lingual biopsy specimens from dogs evaluated from January 1995 to October 2004 were reviewed.
Results—Neoplasia comprised 54% of lingual lesions. Malignant tumors accounted for 64% of lingual neoplasms and included melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Largebreed dogs, especially Chow Chows and Chinese Shar-Peis, were at increased risk for melanoma. Females of all breeds and Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, and Samoyeds were more likely to have squamous cell carcinomas. Hemangiosarcomas and fibrosarcomas were commonly diagnosed in Border Collies and Golden Retrievers, respectively. Benign neoplasms included squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, and granular cell tumor. Small-breed dogs, especially Cocker Spaniels, were at increased risk for plasma cell tumors. Glossitis accounted for 33% of diagnoses; in most cases, the inciting cause was not apparent. Whereas large-breed dogs were more likely to have lingual neoplasia, small-breed dogs were more likely to have glossitis. Calcinosis circumscripta accounted for 4% of lingual lesions and predominately affected young large-breed dogs. The remaining submissions consisted mostly of various degenerative or wound-associated lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The frequency of lingual lesions was not evenly distributed across breeds, sexes, or size classes of dogs. Veterinarians should be aware of the commonly reported lingual lesions in dogs so that prompt diagnosis and appropriate management can be initiated.
OBJECTIVE To quantitatively measure the amount of pressure induced at the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface of dogs by use of 2 cast configurations.
ANIMALS 13 client- or student-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Pressure sensors were placed over the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface. Dogs then were fitted with a fiberglass cast on a pelvic limb extending from the digits to the stifle joint (tall cast). Pressure induced over the calcaneus and proximal edge of the cast at the level of the cranial tibial surface was simultaneously recorded during ambulation. Subsequently, the cast was shortened to end immediately proximal to the calcaneus (short cast), and data acquisition was repeated. Pressure at the level of the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface for both cast configurations was compared by use of paired t tests.
RESULTS The short cast created significantly greater peak pressure at the level of the calcaneus (mean ± SD, 0.2 ± 0.07 MPa), compared with peak pressure created by the tall cast (0.1 ± 0.06 MPa). Mean pressure at the proximal cranial edge of the cast was significantly greater for the short cast (0.2 ± 0.06 MPa) than for the tall cast (0.04 ± 0.03 MPa).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A cast extended to the level of the proximal portion of the tibia caused less pressure at the level of the calcaneus and the proximal cranial edge of the cast. Reducing the amount of pressure at these locations may minimize the potential for pressure sores and other soft tissue injuries.
Objective—To identify epidemiological trends in cutaneous neoplasms affecting equids in central North America and compare them with previously reported trends.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample—3,351 cutaneous biopsy specimens from 3,272 equids with a neoplastic diagnosis.
Procedures—Diagnostic reports from 2 diagnostic laboratories (Colorado State University and Prairie Diagnostic Services Inc) were reviewed for frequency of specific lesions and epidemiological trends. Variables included in analyses (if known) were age, sex, breed, geographic location, date of diagnosis, location of neoplasm on the body, and presence or absence of ulceration.
Results—Sarcoid, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma were the 3 most common tumors diagnosed. Tumors associated with UV radiation (SCC, SCC in situ, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma) were 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 3.0) times as common in biopsy specimens received by Colorado State University than in specimens received by Prairie Diagnostic Services Inc. Appaloosa horses and American Paint horses, respectively, were 7.2 (95% CI, 5.6 to 9.2) and 4.4 (95% CI, 3.6 to 5.4) times as likely as other breeds to have tumors associated with UV radiation. Thoroughbreds were predisposed to cutaneous lymphoma, whereas Arabians were more likely to have melanomas. Draft and pony breeds were 3.1 (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.1) times as likely as other breeds to have benign soft tissue tumors. Morgans and pony breeds more commonly had basal cell tumors. Tumors in the perianal region were significantly more likely to be SCC or melanoma while tumors on the limbs were more likely to be giant cell tumor of soft parts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Signalment, anatomic location of the mass, and geographic location of the horse can be used to help equine practitioners formulate differential diagnoses for cutaneous masses. Further research is necessary to identify the biological basis for the development of many equine cutaneous neoplasms.
Objective—To identify risk factors for development of excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) in large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).
Animals—58 dogs with excessive TPAs (ie, TPA ≥ 35°; case dogs) and 58 dogs with normal TPAs (ie, TPA ≤ 30°; control dogs).
Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed and owners were interviewed to identify potential risk factors for excessive TPA.
Results—Case dogs were 3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.0) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs. Case dogs with TPA ≥ 35° in both limbs were 13.6 times (95% confidence interval, 2.72 to 68.1) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs with TPA ≤ 30° in both limbs. Case dogs were significantly younger at the onset of hind limb lameness than were control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that early neutering was a significant risk factor for development of excessive TPA in large-breed dogs with CCLD. Further research into the effects of early neutering on TPA and the pathophysiology of CCLD is warranted.