Objective—To determine the accuracy of sow culling classifications reported by lay personnel on commercial swine farms.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—A convenience sample of 923 sows from 8 conventional, farrow-to-wean farms that followed standard operating procedures.
Procedures—Sows were examined at slaughter, and lesions were recorded. Individual production records were reviewed to determine the farm-reported reason for culling the sows, and criteria were developed to assess the accuracy of recorded culling classifications.
Results—For 209 of the 923 (23%) sows, the farm-reported culling classification was judged to be inaccurate. The culling code was considered to be inaccurate for 62 of 322 (19%) sows reportedly culled because of old age, 48 of 172 (28%) sows reportedly culled because of failure to conceive, 31 of 90 (34%) sows reportedly culled because of poor body condition, and 23 of 73 (32%) sows reportedly culled because of poor farrowing productivity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that for commercial swine farms, farm-reported culling code classifications were frequently inaccurate. This degree of inaccuracy may cause severe limitations for studies that rely on farm-reported assessments of clinical conditions.
Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections
attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
(PRRS) virus to US swine producers.
Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity
of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding
herds and growing-pig populations were collected
from a convenience sample of swine farms in the
midwestern United States.
Procedure—Health and productivity variables of
PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms
were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on
specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence
were then used to determine the annual economic
impact of PRRS on US swine producers.
Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig
populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive
health, an increase in deaths, and reductions
in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic
impact of these effects on US swine producers
was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and
$493.57 million in growing-pig populations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes
a substantial financial burden on US swine producers
and causes approximately $560.32 million in
losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication,
annual losses attributable to classical swine fever
(hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at
$364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively
(adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current
PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful;
thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into
the future. Research to improve our understanding of
ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the
PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and
diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)