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Abstract

Objective

To determine the apical anatomy of canine teeth in cats.

Sample Population

70 permanent canine teeth of cats.

Procedure

The teeth were extracted, cleaned, and radiographed, and the root canals were stained with India ink, then cleared in methyl salicylate. The apical root canal anatomy was studied by examining dental radiographs and microscopic measurements performed on the cleared specimens.

Results

Apical root canal anatomy in cats has the same "sprinkler-rose" appearance as seen in dogs. The mean length of the radiodense apex on radiographs was 2.8 ± 1.2 mm. The mean lengths of the apical ramifications were 1.9 ± 0.4 and 1.6 ± 0.4 mm for upper and lower canine teeth, respectively; mean numbers of apical ramifications were 13 ± 6 and 12 + 5, respectively; and mean ratios (length of ramifications/length of root) were 0.16 ± 0.03 and 0.15 ± 0.04, respectively. There was significant (P < 0.05) difference in the length of apical ramifications between upper and lower canine teeth and significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the length of the root and the length of apical ramifications for all canine teeth.

Conclusion

Primary apical foramen is not present in mature canine teeth of cats.

Clinical Relevance

There is little risk of apical penetration by files during endodontic therapy of canine teeth of cats; however, the multiple foramina require that apical instrumentation is thorough to prevent soft tissue remnants causing failure of the procedure. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1545–1548)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—38 dogs.

Procedures—Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluati on, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD. All tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, and appropriate treatment of PD was performed. Laboratory data were obtained 4 weeks after treatment. The Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis.

Results—Analyses of the correlation of several variables with attachment loss or gingivitis or of differences before and after treatment revealed significant results for several variables. After applying Bonferroni corrections for family-wise error rate, significant rank correlations were found between attachment loss and platelet number (r = 0.54), creatinine concentration (r = −0.49), and the within-dog difference in CRP concentrations before and after treatment (r = 0.40). The BUN concentration was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. A decrease in CRP concentration after treatment was correlated with the severity of PD. The BUN concentration increased significantly after treatment of PD. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of PD.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors potentially associated with the development of bacterial endocarditis in dogs and determine whether periodontal disease and surgical procedures (oral and nonoral) were associated with bacterial endocarditis.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—76 dogs with (cases) and 80 dogs without (controls) bacterial endocarditis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, recent medical history, and results of echocardiography, clinicopatho- logic testing, and necropsy.

Results—None of the dogs with endocarditis had a history of undergoing any dental or oral procedure in the 3 months prior to the diagnosis of endocarditis, and no significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of oral infection. Dogs with endocarditis were significantly more likely to have undergone a nonoral surgical procedure that required general anesthesia in the preceding 3 months or to have developed a new heart murmur or a change in intensity of an existing heart murmur. Preexisting cardiac dis-ease (congenital or acquired) was not found to be a risk factor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not provide any evidence of an association between bacterial endocarditis in dogs and either dental or oral surgical procedures or oral infection. Findings suggested that the routine use of prophylactic antimicrobial administration in dogs undergoing oral procedures needs to be reevaluated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To enumerate the prevalence of Campylobacter isolates in the intestinal tract of market-weight swine raised in an integrated swine operation in Texas.

Sample Population

Samples of cecal contents were collected from 595 pigs (mean body weight, 110 kg [242 lb]) at time of slaughter. Pigs were offspring of Yorkshire-Landrace sows and Duroc or Hampshire boars. Pigs originated from 4 farrow-to-finish farms.

Procedure

During a 9-month period, visits were made to a slaughter plant to remove cecal contents from market-weight hogs. Samples were obtained from 50 pigs/visit from designated farms so that samples were obtained 3 times from pigs of each of 4 farms. Isolation of Campylobacter spp was accomplished by use of enrichment broth and restrictive media, using microaerophilic conditions.

Results

Campylobacter spp were isolated from 70 to 100% of the pigs, depending on the farm and the date the samples were collected. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 20 to 100% (mean, 60%) of samples, and C jejuni was isolated from 0 to 76% (mean, 31%) of samples. Campylobacter lari was isolated from 2 pigs. Concentrations of C coli or C jejuni ranged from 103 to 107 colony-forming units/g of cecal content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Campylobacter coli generally is accepted as a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of swine. However, analysis of results of this study suggests that a relatively high prevalence of C jejuni may be found in pigs raised on specific farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1601–1604)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

This article describes the core competencies recommended for inclusion in the veterinary curriculum for all veterinary graduates based on the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Competency-Based Veterinary Education document. General practice companion animal veterinarians are frequently presented with patients having dental, oral, or maxillofacial pathology, and veterinary graduates will be relied upon for recommendations for the maintenance of oral health, including the prevention of periodontal disease, identification of endodontic disease, and knowledge of developmental defects. These recommendations should be made for all veterinary patients starting at a young age. These core competencies can apply to many companion species, but mainly are focused on the dog and cat.

Because periodontal disease is the most common abnormality observed in dogs and cats, the first key step is taking a few seconds during examination of every patient of any age presented for any reason to examine the oral cavity. Although dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is often diagnosed after imaging and evaluation under anesthesia, the first step is observation of dentition and gingivae during the conscious exam to assess periodontal health status. The physical exam of the oral cavity may reveal oral behavior (eg, observation of uncomplicated crown fractures due to chewing on hard objects), which will permit recommendations for enhanced prevention by daily oral hygiene or professional treatment.

There are now many involved dental and surgical treatments available, some of which require specialist-level instrumentation and expertise. General practitioners should be able to competently perform the following immediately upon graduation from veterinary school:

  • For patients for whom the owner’s reason for the veterinary visit is not dental, oral, or maxillofacial disease, obtain a brief (1 or 2 questions) history of the oral health of the patient.

  • On lifting the lip of every patient, recognize presence or absence of accumulated dental plaque or calculus on the crowns of the teeth, presence or absence of gingival inflammation or ulceration, and presence or absence of other dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology.

  • On anesthetized patients that have dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology for which professional treatment is indicated, be able to obtain and interpret appropriately positioned and exposed dental radiographs.

  • When the presence of dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is recognized, determine whether each tooth present in the mouth does or does not require professional treatment beyond dental subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing.

  • List the indications for tooth extraction, know indications for potential oral/dental treatments beyond subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing or extraction, and determine whether the professional treatment that may be indicated, such as root canal treatment or mass resection of oral tissues, requires referral for specialist-level expertise and instrumentation.

  • Complete a thorough periodontal evaluation and therapy with periodontal probing, including professional subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling with polishing under anesthesia.

  • Demonstrate the ability to extract teeth indicated for extraction, using gentle and appropriate techniques that will risk minimal injury to the jaws and oral soft tissues and reduce postoperative patient pain.

  • Provide appropriate postoperative care, including recognition of when postoperative analgesia and possibly antibiotic administration are indicated.

Open access