Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Colin C. Schwarzwald x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine pharmacokinetic variables and to evaluate the influence on clotting times after SC administration of single doses of dalteparin and enoxaparin to horses.

Animals—5 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—The study was designed as a 4-period crossover study. Each horse received a single SC injection of dalteparin (50 and 100 anti-Xa U/kg) and enoxaparin (40 and 80 anti-Xa U/kg). Plasma anti-Xa activities and clotting times were measured, and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. Absolute and relative maximal prolongation of clotting times was calculated, and correlation between plasma anti-Xa activities and clotting times was determined.

Results—The SC administration of each of the doses of the 2 preparations was well tolerated. Time course of the anti-Xa activities could be described in a 1-compartment model. Comparison of low- and high-dose treatments revealed a disproportionate increase of the area under the plasma activity-time curve and prolongation of the terminal half-life, but the increase in maximum plasma activity was proportionate, and peak plasma concentrations corresponded with concentrations recommended in human medicine. There were only mild changes in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), whereas the influence on thrombin time (TT) was greater, dose-dependent, and more variable. A weak-to-moderate correlation between aPTT and plasma anti-Xa activities and a moderate-tostrong correlation between TT and plasma anti-Xa activities were found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic and anticoagulatory properties of low-molecular- weight heparins in horses are similar to those found in humans. Once-daily SC administration of dalteparin or enoxaparin may be useful as an anticoagulatory treatment in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:868–873)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the feasibility, describe the techniques, and determine the reliability of transthoracic echocardiography for characterization of left atrial (LA) size and LA mechanical function in horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Repeated echocardiographic examinations were performed independently by 2 observers in standing, unsedated horses by use of 2-dimensional echocardiography, pulsed-wave flow Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) techniques. Test reliability was determined by estimating measurement variability, within-day interobserver variability, and between-day inter- and intraobserver variability of all echocardiographic variables. Variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and the absolute value below which the difference between 2 measurements will lie with 95% probability.

Results—Most echocardiographic variables of LA size had low overall variability (CV, < 15%). Among the 2-dimensional indices of LA mechanical function, area-based and volume-based ejection phase indices had moderate between-day variability (CV usually < 25%). Transmitral Doppler flow indices were characterized by low to high between-day variability (CV, 6% to 35%). The TDI wall motion velocities had high between-day variability (CV, > 25%), whereas most TDI-derived time intervals had low variability (CV, < 15%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LA size and mechanical function can be reliably assessed in standing, unsedated horses by use of 2-dimensional echocardiography, transmitral blood flow velocity profiles, and analyses of LA wall motion by use of TDI. These results may provide useful recommendations for echocardiographic assessment of LA size and function in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research