Objective—To determine whether lipid particle coalescence develops in veterinary parenteral nutrition (PN) admixture preparations that are kept at room temperature (23°C) for > 48 hours and whether that coalescence is prevented by admixture filtration, refrigeration, or agitation.
Sample Population—15 bags of veterinary PN solutions.
Procedures—Bags of a PN admixture preparation containing a lipid emulsion were suspended and maintained under different experimental conditions (3 bags/group) for 96 hours while admixtures were dispensed to simulate IV fluid administration (rate, 16 mL/h). Bags were kept static at 4°C (refrigeration); kept at 23°C (room temperature) and continuously agitated; kept at room temperature and agitated for 5 minutes every 4 hours; kept static at room temperature and filtered during delivery; or kept static at room temperature (control conditions). Admixture samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and examined via transmission electron microscopy to determine lipid particle diameters. At 96 hours, 2 samples were collected at a location distal to the filter from each bag in that group for bacterial culture.
Results—Distribution of lipid particle size in the control preparations and experimentally treated preparations did not differ significantly. A visible oil layer developed in continuously agitated preparations by 72 hours. Bacterial cultures of filtered samples yielded no growth.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated that the veterinary PN admixtures kept static at 23°C are suitable for use for at least 48 hours. Manipulations of PN admixtures appear unnecessary to prolong lipid particle stability, and continuous agitation may hasten lipid breakdown.
Objective—To compare measurements of body temperature
obtained with auricular thermometers versus
rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.
Animals—100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50
without clinical evidence of otitis externa.
Procedure—Dogs were evaluated for the presence
of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic
examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear
exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were
obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following
Results—There was a high correlation between
auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis
externa both prior to and after ear manipulation.
Significant differences were not detected in temperature
measurements among dogs with different
degrees of otitis externa.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Auricular
temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular
thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate
measurements of body temperature, compared with
rectal temperature measurements. Temperature
measurements are reliable before and after examination
of the ear canal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;
Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc
insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly
diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.
Animals—67 diabetic cats.
Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes
and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were
treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of
glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by
evaluation of clinical response, change in body
weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose
concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours
after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration,
and mean blood glucose concentration
during the 9-hour period after administration.
Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed
to attain control of glycemia.
Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean
dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean
blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose
concentration, and mean serum fructosamine
concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled
diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration
and mean serum fructosamine concentration
were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with
day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement
or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in
cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes
and may be used as an initial treatment or as an
alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to
treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med
Objective—To assess the reliability and accuracy of a predictive rectal thermometer, an infrared auricular thermometer designed for veterinary use, and a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip for measurement of core body temperature over various temperature conditions in dogs.
Animals—8 purpose-bred dogs.
Procedures—A minimum of 7 days prior to study commencement, a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip was implanted in 1 of 3 locations (interscapular, lateral aspect of shoulder, or sacral region) in each dog. For comparison with temperatures measured via rectal thermometer, infrared auricular thermometer, and microchip, core body temperature was measured via a thermistor-tipped pulmonary artery (TTPA) catheter. Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature measurements were recorded from the TTPA catheter, the rectal thermometer, auricular thermometer, and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature measurement for each device and agreement between each device measurement and core body temperature were assessed.
Results—Variability between duplicate near-simultaneous temperature measurements was greatest for the auricular thermometer and least for the TTPA catheter. Measurements obtained by use of the rectal thermometer were in closest agreement with core body temperature; for all other devices, temperature readings typically underestimated core body temperature.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the 3 methods of temperature measurement, rectal thermometry provided the most accurate estimation of core body temperature in dogs.