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History

A 3-year-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog was referred for evaluation because of a 2-day history of lethargy, ptyalism, ataxia, anisocoria, and recent, rapidly progressive tetraparesis. On physical examination, the dog was ataxic with dull mentation. Heart rate and rectal temperature were within reference limits, and the patient was panting. The dog was able to stand with assistance and had postural reaction deficits in the pelvic limbs. Neurologic examination revealed bilaterally absent menace and pupillary light responses, anisocoria (left-sided mydriasis), and rotary nystagmus (slow phase to the left). The neurologic deficits were consistent with either a mass lesion in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1-day-old 52-kg (114-lb) American Paint Horse filly was evaluated by a referring veterinarian for acute onset of colic and abnormal upper respiratory tract noises. The foal was treated with a sodium phosphate-based enema with no improvement in clinical signs and was referred for further evaluation.

On physical examination, the foal had moderate signs of abdominal pain and abdominal distension along with a mildly abnormal upper respiratory tract noise heard on both inspiration and expiration. The colic signs resolved with administration of analgesics and an acetylcysteine retention enema along with feed restriction for 10 hours. However, the abnormal upper

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the utility of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the detection of Coccidioides antigen and antibody in CSF in the diagnosis of CNS coccidioidomycosis in dogs.

ANIMALS

51 dogs evaluated for CNS disease in a single specialty center in Tucson in 2016.

PROCEDURES

Excess CSF after routine analysis was banked after collection from dogs presented to the neurology service. Samples were tested by EIA for presence of Coccidioides antigen and antibody. Clinical data were collected from medical records retrospectively.

RESULTS

22 dogs were diagnosed with CNS coccidioidomycosis (CCM) or another neurologic disease (non-CCM). These groups of dogs overlapped in the presenting complaints, MRI results, and routine CSF analysis results. Four dogs, all with CCM, had positive antigen EIA results. With clinical diagnosis used as the reference standard, CSF antigen testing had low sensitivity (20%) but high specificity (100%) for diagnosis of CCM. Ten dogs with CCM and 4 dogs with other diagnoses had antibody detected in CSF by EIA. Sensitivity of CSF antibody testing was 46%, specificity was 86%, and positive and negative predictive values for the study population were 71% and 68%, respectively.

Clinical Relevance

Diagnosis of CNS coccidioidomycosis in dogs in an endemic region was hampered by overlap of clinical signs with other neurologic disorders and the low sensitivity of confirmatory diagnostics. The evaluated Coccidioides-specific EIAs performed on CSF can aid in the diagnosis. A prospective study is warranted to corroborate and refine these preliminary findings

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.

Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial blood gas variables were measured before (baseline) and during unilateral and bilateral nasopharyngeal delivery of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mL of oxygen/kg/min.

Results—No adverse reactions were associated with administration of supplemental oxygen except at the highest flow rate, at which the foals became agitated. At individual flow rates, significant and dose-dependent increases in Fio2, Pao2, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (Sao2) were detected, compared with baseline values. Comparison of unilateral and bilateral delivery of oxygen at similar cumulative flow rates revealed no differences in evaluated variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulae appeared to be a highly effective means of increasing Fio2, Pao2, and Sao2 in neonatal foals. These findings may provide guidance for implementation of oxygen treatment in hypoxemic neonatal foals. (Am J Vet Med 2010;71:1081–1088)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A 23-year-old Palomino gelding weighing 516 kg (1,135 lb) was evaluated by the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital because of sudden-onset tetraparesis and ataxia of < 24 hours' duration. The horse had no history of previous illness with the exception of fibrotic myopathy in the right pelvic limb years earlier. The horse was bright, alert, and responsive; rectal temperature was 37.3°C (99.1°F), pulse rate was 42 beats/min (second-degree atrioventricular block was suspected), and respiratory rate was 18 breaths/min. The horse had not received medication prior to the evaluation.

What is the problem? Where is the lesion? What are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate tissue diffusion of anesthetic agent following administration of low palmar nerve blocks (LPBs) in horses.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedures—In 9 horses, mepivacaine hydrochloride–iohexol (50:50 dilution) injections were administered bilaterally (2 or 4 mL/site) to affect the medial and lateral palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves (4 sites). Lateral radiographic views of both metacarpal regions were obtained before and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after block administration; proximal and distal extents of contrast medium (and presumably anesthetic agent) diffusion from palmar and palmar metacarpal injection sites were measured and summed to determine total diffusion. Methylene blue solution was injected in forelimbs of 3 other horses that were subsequently euthanized to determine the potential route of anesthetic agent diffusion to the proximal suspensory ligament region.

Results—Mean extents of proximal and total contrast medium diffusion were 4.0 and 6.6 cm, respectively, for the palmar metacarpal nerves and 4.3 and 7.1 cm, respectively, for the palmar nerves. Subtle proximal diffusion secondary to lymphatic drainage was evident in 17 of the 18 limbs. Contrast medium was detected in the metacarpophalangeal joint or within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 8 and 7 limbs, respectively. In the cadaver limbs, methylene blue solution did not extend to the proximal suspensory ligament region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, LPBs resulted in minimal proximal diffusion of anesthetic agent from the injection sites. Limbs should be aseptically prepared prior to LPB administration because inadvertent intrasynovial injection may occur.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and responses to low-dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—58 ill foals.

Procedures—Baseline cortisol and ACTH concentrations and cortisol concentrations after administration of a low dose of cosyntropin were determined within 6 hours after admission. Foals were assigned to 4 groups on the basis of age (≤ 24 hours vs 1 to 56 days) and presence of septicemia (yes vs no). Values were compared among groups and with values previously reported for healthy foals.

Results—Plasma cortisol concentrations 30 and 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration in foals ≤ 24 hours old were significantly higher than corresponding cortisol concentrations in older foals. In all 4 groups, plasma cortisol concentration 30 minutes after cosyntropin administration was significantly higher than baseline cortisol concentration or concentration 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration. No differences in baseline cor-tisol or ACTH concentration or in the ACTH-to-cortisol ratio were detected between groups or when ill foals were compared with healthy foals. A small number of ill foals had low baseline cortisol and ACTH concentrations or low responses to cosyntropin administration, compared with healthy foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most ill foals in the present study population had adequate responses to cosyntropin administration. However, a small subset of ill foals appeared to have dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of polymyxin B on clinical and serum biochemical variables in foals with experimental endotoxemia.

Design—Prospective experimental study.

Animals—14 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and were administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0.5 μg/kg [0.23 μg/lb]) IV over 30 minutes. The treatment group received polymyxin B (6,000 U/kg [2,727 U/lb], IV) immediately after completion of lipopolysaccharide infusion; the control group was administered an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Subsequent doses of polymyxin B or saline solution were administered IV at 8 and 16 hours. Blood was collected at various time points, and outcome variables, including heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, attitude score, WBC count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, platelet count, Hct, blood lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and plasma thromboxane B2 concentration, were measured. Urine was collected prior to and after experimentation to determine whether nephrotoxicosis was associated with treatment.

Results—The treatment group had significantly lower blood lactate concentration and serum tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma thromboxane B2 concentrations and had higher blood glucose concentrations and better attitude scores, compared with the control group, at various time points during the study. No other significant differences and no evidence of overt nephrotoxicosis were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of polymyxin B IV in healthy neonatal foals challenged with lipopolysaccharide attenuated some clinical and serum biochemical derangements associated with endotoxemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate associations between recovery of locomotion and putative prognostic factors in dogs with loss of deep pain perception in the pelvic limbs caused by intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).

DESIGN Prospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 78 client-owned dogs evaluated for IVDH that underwent spinal decompression surgery.

PROCEDURES Dogs with complete loss of deep pain perception in the pelvic limbs and tail underwent routine examinations, advanced imaging, and spinal decompression surgery in accordance with standards of practice and owner consent. For each dog, information was prospectively collected on duration of clinical signs prior to onset of paraplegia; delay between onset of paraplegia and initial referral evaluation; date of recovery of locomotion, death, or euthanasia (3-month follow-up period); and whether dogs had received corticosteroid drugs before surgery. Severity of spinal cord compression at the lesion epicenter was measured via CT or MRI.

RESULTS 45 of 78 (58%) of dogs recovered the ability to ambulate independently within 3 months after spinal decompression surgery. No evidence of prognostic value was identified for any of the investigated factors; importantly, a greater delay between onset of paraplegia and referral evaluation was not associated with a poorer prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this group of dogs with IVDH, immediacy of surgical treatment had no apparent association with outcome. The prognosis for recovery may instead be strongly influenced by the precise nature of the initiating injury.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—5 horses were evaluated because of decreased appetite, weight loss, fever, cough, tachypnea, and respiratory distress.

Clinical Findings—Tachycardia, tachypnea, increased respiratory effort, lethargy, fever, poor body condition, and nasal discharge were detected in various combinations on initial physical examination. Evaluation of the lower portion of the respiratory tract via radiography and ultrasonography revealed a severe nodular interstitial pattern. Histologic examination of lung tissue revealed interstitial expansion of alveolar parenchyma with collagen, intraluminal accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages within the alveoli, and occasional intranuclear inclusion bodies within alveolar macrophages. Equine herpesvirus type 5 was detected in samples of lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or both via polymerase chain reaction assay in all cases. A diagnosis of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) was established.

Treatment and Outcome—Horses were provided supportive treatment and were administered a variety of medications including corticosteroids and acyclovir. Two horses survived and returned to their previous level of activity. Three horses were euthanized because of either deterioration of clinical condition (n = 2) or failure to improve within 4 weeks of initiation of treatment (1).

Clinical Relevance—EMPF should be considered as a differential diagnosis for adult horses with interstitial pneumonia and should be suspected on the basis of characteristic radiographic, ultrasonographic, and histopathologic findings. Equine herpesvirus type 5 is found in association with EMPF; although the exact pathogenic role this virus plays in EMPF is unknown, equine herpesvirus type 5 may be an etiologic agent or cofactor in the development of EMPF.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association