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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine manubrium heart scores (MHSs) from measurements of cardiac short-axis length (cSAL) and long-axis length (cLAL) relative to the corresponding manubrium length (ML) on thoracic radiographic views of dogs and assess correlation of MHSs with vertebral heart scores (VHSs).

ANIMALS 120 clinically normal large-breed dogs (LBDs) and small-breed dogs (SBDs).

PROCEDURES On right lateral views (RLVs) and ventrodorsal views (VDVs) for each dog, cSAL and cLAL were measured and expressed as a ratio; the cSAL:ML ratio (short-MHS), cLAL:ML ratio (long-MHS), and cSAL-and-cLAL:ML ratio (overall-MHS) were also calculated. The VHS was determined from the RLV. Correlation of VHS with MHS was assessed.

RESULTS On RLVs and VDVs, mean cSAL:cLAL ratios were 0.77 (SD, 0.05) and 0.72 (SD, 0.05), respectively, in 60 LBDs and 0.81 (SD, 0.06) and 0.78 (SD, 0.06), respectively, in 60 SBDs. In LBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.1 (SD, 0.22), 2.7 (SD, 0.24), and 4.8 (SD, 0.5), respectively, on RLVs and 2.3 (SD, 0.26), 3.2 (SD, 0.34), and 5.4 (SD, 0.6), respectively, on VDVs. In SBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.4 (SD, 0.39), 2.9 (SD, 0.50), and 5.3 (SD, 0.83), respectively, on RLVs and 2.5 (SD, 0.44), 3.2 (SD, 0.51), and 5.8 (SD, 0.92), respectively, on VDVs. Mean VHSs were 10.73 (SD, 0.52) and 10.27 (SD, 0.81) in LBDs and SBDs, respectively. A significant correlation was identified between VHS and each MHS in LBDs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In the dogs evaluated, radiographic cardiac dimensions and MHSs were correlated. Validity of the MHS for cardiac dimension assessment in other healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease warrants investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the usefulness of manubrium heart scores (MHSs) in distinguishing between dogs with and without cardiac disease.

ANIMALS

184 client-owned dogs with (n = 64) and without (120) cardiac disease.

PROCEDURES

Medical records, including thoracic radiographic images, of dogs that either had echocardiographically confirmed moderate to severe cardiac disease with cardiomegaly (case dogs) or were healthy and without evidence of cardiac disease (control dogs) were retrospectively reviewed. From right lateral thoracic radiographic images, the lengths of the cardiac short and long axes and the manubrium were measured and cardiac sphericity indices (CSIs), MHSs, and vertebral heart scores were determined. Dogs were grouped on the basis of whether they did or did not have cardiac disease (case dogs vs control dogs), breed size (large-breed dogs vs small-breed dogs), and whether cardiac disease affected the right side of the heart (right-sided cardiac disease) or the left side of heart (left-sided cardiac disease). Results were compared across groups.

RESULTS

The mean CSI was greatest in case dogs with right-sided cardiac disease, compared with other groups. In dogs of the present study, a combination of high short-, long-, and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of left-sided cardiac disease, whereas a high short-MHS without high long- and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of right-sided cardiac disease.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that MHSs could be useful, objective values to help assess dogs for potential heart disease, and we recommend that MHSs be added to the diagnostic tools used by veterinarians when screening for heart disease in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by use of CT coronary angiography and thermodilution (criterion-referenced standard) at various CO values, record adverse effects, and determine the time needed to measure CO.

ANIMALS 5 healthy purpose-bred Beagles (2 males and 3 females).

PROCEDURES A prospective nonrandomized crossover study was conducted. Dogs were premedicated with butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg•kg−1, IM). Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of etomidate (1 to 2 mg•kg−1) and midazolam (0.25 mg•kg−1). Orotracheal intubation was performed, and anesthesia was maintained by administration of isoflurane. The CO was determined by use of thermodilution and by use of CT at 3 CO values. Dobutamine was infused at various rates to obtain the 3 CO values.

RESULTS 13 values were obtained and analyzed. The mean ± SD difference between methods was 0.09 ± 0.71 L•min−1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to −0.34 L•min−1). Only 1 of 13 values was located on the 100% agreement line (ie, 0 line), 7 of 13 values were located within the 95% CI, and 5 of 13 values were outside the 95% CI.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this study, there was poor agreement between the 2 methods. The 95% CI interval was 0.52 to −0.34 L•min−1, and 5 of 13 values were outside the 95% CI. Therefore, results for the CT method appeared to be inappropriate for use in making clinical decisions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop quantitative measures that, when combined with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) score, would potentially enhance the accuracy of the scoring process.

ANIMALS

153 client-owned purebred German Shepherd Dogs with normal and near normal (71 dogs) and dysplastic coxofemoral joint (82 dogs).

PROCEDURES

Center edge (CE) angle, Norberg angle (NA), indexes of dorsal acetabular femoral head (AFH) coverage width and area, acetabular index angle, and inclination angle were determined. We also investigated the correlation between selected variables. Coxofemoral joints were classified into normal, near normal, and mildly, moderately, and severely dysplastic joints based on the morphometric criteria previously established by the conventional FCI scoring. Variables were compared among the 5 groups using ANOVA. Linear relationships were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients.

RESULTS

All radiographic measurements differed significantly (P < .0001) among the 5 assigned groups (normal, near normal, mildly dysplastic, moderately dysplastic, and severely dysplastic hip joints). NA was the only measure that differed significantly (P ≤ .03) between the 5 assigned groups. Positive correlations were identified between Norberg and CE angles (r s = 0.93), between width and area indexes of dorsal AFH coverage (rs = 0.92), and between the measurement techniques utilized to assess lateral versus dorsal AFH coverage (rs ≥ 0.65).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Evaluation of lateral and dorsal AFH coverage may help to refine the scoring system used to select German Shepherd Dogs for breeding. German Shepherd Dogs with NA < 103°, CE angle < 20.8°, dorsal AFH coverage width index ≤ 49%, and/or dorsal AFH coverage area index ≤ 51% should be considered to have mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia and are therefore not good candidates for breeding. Borderline values between near normal and mildly dysplastic joints should be reevaluated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate indications for and complications, efficacy, and effects on renal function of unilateral nephrectomy in dogs with renal disease, and to evaluate the role that scintigraphy had in the decision to excise a kidney.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

30 dogs with renal disease that underwent unilateral nephrectomy. A comparison group of 12 dogs with renal calculi that underwent renal scintigraphy but not nephrectomy was included.

Results

Indications for nephrectomy included renal or ureteral calculi (n = 10), renal mass (8), chronic pyelonephritis (5), perirenal mass (3), severe hydronephrosis and hydroureter (3), and renal hypoplasia with ureteral ectopia (1). None of the dogs were azotemic before surgery. Renal scintigraphy apparently influenced the decision to perform nephrectomy, because in 14 of 16 dogs that underwent nephrectomy, the affected kidney contributed ≤ 33% of the total glomerular filtration rate, but in 6 of 8 comparison dogs that underwent nephrotomy, the affected kidney contributed > 33% of total glomerular filtration rate. Complications of nephrectomy included oliguria (5) and organ laceration (2). Mean ± SD final serum creatinine concentration for 16 dogs alive at least 6 months after nephrectomy was 2.2 ± 1.8 mg/dl. Three dogs had chronic renal failure of undetermined cause at the time of death. Nephrectomy did not completely resolve the underlying disease in 13 dogs. Renal function was evaluated in 6 dogs 2 to 3.5 years after nephrectomy and was impaired in 4. None of the dogs were anemic, azotemic, proteinuric, or hypertensive. Survival time varied depending on the underlying disease.

Clinical Implications

Multiple factors contributed to the decision to perform nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy resulted in few serious complications and was not detrimental to the remaining kidney, but did not always resolve the underlying disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2020-2026)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone on the palmaro45°proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Pa45°Pr-PaDio) clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography (ct). Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained 100-µm-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy.

A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by ct in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated. Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed ct images indicated a crescent-shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted. The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45°Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described. The crescent-shaped lucency within the navicular bone flexor central eminence identified on clinical radiographs was associated with remodeling of cancellous bone within the medullary cavity of the navicular bone. It is hypothesized that remodeling of the cancellous bone is secondary to biomechanical stresses and strains placed on the navicular bone, although the clinical relevance of this finding was not determined during the study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research