OBJECTIVE To determine manubrium heart scores (MHSs) from measurements of cardiac short-axis length (cSAL) and long-axis length (cLAL) relative to the corresponding manubrium length (ML) on thoracic radiographic views of dogs and assess correlation of MHSs with vertebral heart scores (VHSs).
ANIMALS 120 clinically normal large-breed dogs (LBDs) and small-breed dogs (SBDs).
PROCEDURES On right lateral views (RLVs) and ventrodorsal views (VDVs) for each dog, cSAL and cLAL were measured and expressed as a ratio; the cSAL:ML ratio (short-MHS), cLAL:ML ratio (long-MHS), and cSAL-and-cLAL:ML ratio (overall-MHS) were also calculated. The VHS was determined from the RLV. Correlation of VHS with MHS was assessed.
RESULTS On RLVs and VDVs, mean cSAL:cLAL ratios were 0.77 (SD, 0.05) and 0.72 (SD, 0.05), respectively, in 60 LBDs and 0.81 (SD, 0.06) and 0.78 (SD, 0.06), respectively, in 60 SBDs. In LBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.1 (SD, 0.22), 2.7 (SD, 0.24), and 4.8 (SD, 0.5), respectively, on RLVs and 2.3 (SD, 0.26), 3.2 (SD, 0.34), and 5.4 (SD, 0.6), respectively, on VDVs. In SBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.4 (SD, 0.39), 2.9 (SD, 0.50), and 5.3 (SD, 0.83), respectively, on RLVs and 2.5 (SD, 0.44), 3.2 (SD, 0.51), and 5.8 (SD, 0.92), respectively, on VDVs. Mean VHSs were 10.73 (SD, 0.52) and 10.27 (SD, 0.81) in LBDs and SBDs, respectively. A significant correlation was identified between VHS and each MHS in LBDs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In the dogs evaluated, radiographic cardiac dimensions and MHSs were correlated. Validity of the MHS for cardiac dimension assessment in other healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease warrants investigation.
To evaluate the usefulness of manubrium heart scores (MHSs) in distinguishing between dogs with and without cardiac disease.
184 client-owned dogs with (n = 64) and without (120) cardiac disease.
Medical records, including thoracic radiographic images, of dogs that either had echocardiographically confirmed moderate to severe cardiac disease with cardiomegaly (case dogs) or were healthy and without evidence of cardiac disease (control dogs) were retrospectively reviewed. From right lateral thoracic radiographic images, the lengths of the cardiac short and long axes and the manubrium were measured and cardiac sphericity indices (CSIs), MHSs, and vertebral heart scores were determined. Dogs were grouped on the basis of whether they did or did not have cardiac disease (case dogs vs control dogs), breed size (large-breed dogs vs small-breed dogs), and whether cardiac disease affected the right side of the heart (right-sided cardiac disease) or the left side of heart (left-sided cardiac disease). Results were compared across groups.
The mean CSI was greatest in case dogs with right-sided cardiac disease, compared with other groups. In dogs of the present study, a combination of high short-, long-, and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of left-sided cardiac disease, whereas a high short-MHS without high long- and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of right-sided cardiac disease.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that MHSs could be useful, objective values to help assess dogs for potential heart disease, and we recommend that MHSs be added to the diagnostic tools used by veterinarians when screening for heart disease in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by use of CT coronary angiography and thermodilution (criterion-referenced standard) at various CO values, record adverse effects, and determine the time needed to measure CO.
ANIMALS 5 healthy purpose-bred Beagles (2 males and 3 females).
PROCEDURES A prospective nonrandomized crossover study was conducted. Dogs were premedicated with butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg•kg−1, IM). Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of etomidate (1 to 2 mg•kg−1) and midazolam (0.25 mg•kg−1). Orotracheal intubation was performed, and anesthesia was maintained by administration of isoflurane. The CO was determined by use of thermodilution and by use of CT at 3 CO values. Dobutamine was infused at various rates to obtain the 3 CO values.
RESULTS 13 values were obtained and analyzed. The mean ± SD difference between methods was 0.09 ± 0.71 L•min−1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to −0.34 L•min−1). Only 1 of 13 values was located on the 100% agreement line (ie, 0 line), 7 of 13 values were located within the 95% CI, and 5 of 13 values were outside the 95% CI.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this study, there was poor agreement between the 2 methods. The 95% CI interval was 0.52 to −0.34 L•min−1, and 5 of 13 values were outside the 95% CI. Therefore, results for the CT method appeared to be inappropriate for use in making clinical decisions.
Objective—To determine demographic, clinical, and
radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs.
Animals—289 dogs identified through the Veterinary
Medical Database (VMDB) and 27 dogs examined at
the North Carolina State University Veterinary
Procedure—Demographic characteristics of dogs
identified through the VMDB were compared with
characteristics of the entire population of dogs
entered in the VMDB. Medical records of dogs examined
at the teaching hospital were reviewed; the diagnosis
was confirmed through review of thoracic radiographs.
Results—Analysis of data from the VMDB indicated
that American Cocker Spaniels, West Highland White
Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Siberian Huskies, English
Springer Spaniels, and dogs > 10 years old had an
increased risk of bronchiectasis. Among dogs examined
at the teaching hospital, coughing was the most
common clinical sign. There was evidence for excessive
airway mucus but not hemorrhage. A variety of
bacterial organisms were isolated from tracheal wash
and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. On thoracic radiographs,
cylindrical bronchiectasis, generalized disease,
and right cranial lung lobe involvement were
most common. Seven of 14 dogs for which follow-up
radiographs were available did not have any progression
of radiographic lesions. Median duration of clinical
signs prior to diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 9
months (range, 1 day to 10 years). Median survival
time was 16 months (range, 2 days to 72 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that despite substantial clinical abnormalities,
dogs with bronchiectasis may survive for years.
Certain purebred dogs and older dogs may have an
increased risk of developing bronchiectasis. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;223:1628–1635)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of noncontrast abdominal CT and abdominal ultrasonography for the detection of mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction in dogs and compare intestinal diameter ratios between dogs with and without obstruction.
DESIGN Controlled trial.
ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with physical and radiographic findings consistent with mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction.
PROCEDURES Abdominal ultrasonography and CT were performed for all dogs, followed by laparoscopy and exploratory laparotomy. Time required for image acquisition and presence and location of gastrointestinal obstruction were assessed with both imaging modalities. Findings were compared with those of exploratory surgery. Maximum and minimum intestinal diameters were recorded on CT scans; values were converted to a ratio and compared between dogs with and without obstruction.
RESULTS Results of abdominal CT and exploratory surgery for the diagnosis of mechanical obstruction agreed for all 16 dogs; 10 dogs had complete obstruction, 3 had partial obstruction, and 3 had no obstruction. In 1 dog with functional ileus, abdominal ultrasonography resulted in an incorrect diagnosis of mechanical obstruction. Median (interquartile range) image acquisition time for abdominal CT (2.5 minutes [2.0 to 3.8 minutes]) was markedly and significantly shorter than that for ultrasonography (26.0 minutes [22.0 to 35.8 minutes]). In both dorsal and transverse CT planes, dogs with gastrointestinal obstruction (partial or complete) had significantly larger intestinal diameter ratios than dogs without obstruction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Abdominal CT was feasible, rapid, and accurate for the diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs with clinical signs and physical examination findings consistent with partial or complete gastrointestinal obstruction.
Objective—To determine intra- and interobserver variability of 2 veterinary radiologists and 2 veterinary general practitioners for detection of pulmonary nodules in standard and inverted (reversed grayscale) displays of digital thoracic radiographs of dogs.
Sample—114 sets of 3-view (right lateral, left lateral, and ventrodorsal or dorsoventral views) digital thoracic radiographs from 114 dogs.
Procedures—2 experienced board-certified veterinary radiologists and 2 experienced veterinary general practitioners individually evaluated 114 randomized sets of radiographs. Pulmonary nodules were present in radiographs of 60 of 114 dogs. Each reviewer examined all images in standard or inverted display mode and scored nodule detection on a confidence scale of 1 to 5. After ≥ 2 months, the same individuals evaluated the same images in the remaining display mode. Intraobserver agreement for each display mode was determined via a κ statistic; results between the 2 groups of reviewers were compared via receiver operator curve analysis.
Results—There was no significant intraobserver variability in pulmonary nodule detection between the 2 display modes. Detection accuracy for board-certified radiologists was significantly greater than that of veterinary general practitioners for both display modes. Near-perfect intraobserver agreement was detected between the 2 display modes for board-certified radiologists, whereas moderate to slight intraobserver agreement was detected for the veterinary general practitioners.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detection of pulmonary nodules in digital thoracic radiographs was comparable, whether a standard or inverted mode was used for evaluations. However, the board-certified radiologists had greater detection accuracy than did veterinary general practitioners.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the closure rate and completeness of closure for a silicone–polyacrylic acid gradual venous occlusion device placed around an intra-abdominal vein to simulate gradual occlusion of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt.
ANIMALS 3 purpose-bred cats and 2 purpose-bred dogs.
PROCEDURES The device was surgically placed around an external (cats) or internal (dogs) iliac vein. Computed tomographic angiography was performed at the time of surgery and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. Ultrasonographic examinations of blood flow through the vein within the device were performed at the time of surgery and at weekly intervals thereafter. Dogs were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery, and the external iliac veins were harvested for histologic examination.
RESULTS The prototype gradual venous occlusion device was successfully placed in all animals, and all animals recovered without complications following the placement procedure. The vessel was completely occluded in 2 cats by 6 weeks after surgery, as determined on the basis of results of CT and ultrasonography; there was incomplete occlusion with a luminal diameter of 1.5 mm in the other cat by 6 weeks after surgery. The vessel was completely occluded in both dogs by 6 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the external iliac veins obtained from the dogs revealed minimal inflammation of the vessel wall and no thrombus formation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prototype device induced gradual attenuation of an intra-abdominal vessel over a 6-week period. This device may provide another option for gradual occlusion of extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.