To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
Twelve 4− to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.
Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a vessel-sealing device used to seal and transect the ovarian pedicles. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with a 3-port approach. Variables were measured during surgery (surgery and anesthesia times and incision lengths) and for up to 7 days after surgery (food consumption, feces production, body weight, vital parameters, blood glucose and cortisol concentrations, abdominal palpation findings, facial grimace scale scores, and ethograms).
Mean surgery (43.2 vs 21.7 minutes) and anesthesia (76.2 vs 48.8 minutes) times were longer and mean incision length was shorter (24.0 vs 41.5 mm) for LapOVE versus OVE. No significant differences in postoperative variables were identified between groups. During LapOVE, small intestinal perforation occurred in 1 rabbit, which was then euthanized. Postoperative complications for the remaining rabbits included superficial incisional dehiscence (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 2/6), subcutaneous emphysema (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6), and seroma formation (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Surgery time for LapOVE was twice that of OVE, and LapOVE resulted in unique complications in rabbits. No evidence of a reduction in pain or faster return to baseline physiologic status was found for LapOVE. Further evaluation of LapOVE in rabbits is warranted, with modification to techniques used in this study or a larger sample size.
To assess the effects of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) on pneumoperitoneal (laparoscopic working space) volume in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
6 female New Zealand White rabbits.
A Latin-square design was used to randomly allocate sequences of 3 IAPs (4, 8, and 12 mm Hg) to each rabbit in a crossover study. Rabbits were anesthetized, subumbilical cannulae were placed, and CT scans were performed to obtain baseline measurements. Each IAP was achieved with CO2 insufflation and maintained for ≥ 15 minutes; CT scans were performed with rabbits in dorsal, left lateral oblique, and right lateral oblique recumbency. The abdomen was desufflated for 5 minutes between treatments (the 3 IAPs). Pneumoperitoneal volumes were calculated from CT measurements with 3-D medical imaging software. Mixed linear regression models evaluated effects of IAP, rabbit position, and treatment order on working space volume.
Mean working space volume at an IAP of 8 mm Hg was significantly greater (a 19% increase) than that at 4 mm Hg, and was significantly greater (a 6.9% increase) at 12 mm Hg than that at 8 mm Hg. Treatment order, but not rabbit position, also had a significant effect on working space. Minor adverse effects reported in other species were observed in some rabbits.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A nonlinear increase in abdominal working space was observed with increasing IAP. Depending on the type of procedure and visual access requirements, IAPs > 8 mm Hg may not provide a clinically important benefit for laparoscopy in rabbits.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 16-year-old female hawk-headed parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) was evaluated because of beak trauma and difficulty eating.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a lateral tissue protrusion in the left half of the oropharyngeal cavity ventral to the proximal aspect of the maxillary tomium as well as a small bony prominence on the left jugal arch. Range of motion of the beak appeared normal. A CT scan of the skull revealed rostroventral displacement of the left palatine bone from the maxilla and left lateral subluxation and lateral luxation of the pterygoid-parasphenoid-palatine complex and pterygoid-palatine articulation, respectively; and transverse fractures of the ipsilateral pterygoid bone, jugal arch, and palatine bone.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Palatine bone displacement was reduced, and surgical fixation was achieved with an interfragmentary wire inserted through the rostral aspect of the affected palatine bone, maxilla, and rhinotheca. The lateral aspect of the wire was covered with dental acrylic. The wire was removed 2 weeks later owing to concerns over local vascular compromise and potential for infection. The bird started eating pelleted food approximately 3 months after surgery; full return of apparently normal beak function was regained by 10 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors’ knowledge, the described beak trauma and surgical approach have not previously been reported for Psittaciformes. Use of CT imaging was invaluable in diagnosing multiple traumatic bone abnormalities and planning surgical correction.
A 13-year-old female white-crowned pionus (Pionus senilis) was examined because of seizures 22 months after it was treated for a traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized by vision loss, hemiparesis, nystagmus, circling, and head tilt.
Bloodwork performed during the initial seizure workup revealed hypercalcemia and hypercholesterolemia, which were attributed to vitellogenesis given the bird's previous egg-laying history and recent onset of reproductive behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse right pallium atrophy with multifocal hydrocephalus ex vacuo, which were believed to be the result of the previous TBI. Findings were most consistent with post-traumatic seizures (PTS).
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Levetiracetam (100 mg/kg [45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated for PTS management. A 4.7-mg deslorelin implant was injected SC to suppress reproductive behavior. The bird was reexamined for presumed status epilepticus 5 times over 22 months. Seizure episodes coincided with onset of reproductive behavior. The levetiracetam dosage was increased (150 mg/kg [68 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h), and zonisamide (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was added to the treatment regimen. Additional deslorelin implants were administered every 2 to 6 months to suppress reproductive behavior. The owner was trained to administer midazolam intranasally or IM as needed at home. The treatment regimen helped control but did not eliminate seizure activity. The bird was euthanized 22 months after PTS diagnosis for reasons unrelated to the TBI or PTS.
Long-term management of PTS in a pionus was achieved with levetiracetam and zonisamide administration.