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  • Author or Editor: Claire Windeyer x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of administration of a solution of xylazine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (XGK) or inhaled isoflurane in mechanically ventilated calves undergoing surgery.

Animals—13 male calves 2 to 26 days of age.

Procedures—In calves in the XGK group, anesthesia was induced (0.5 mL/kg) and maintained (2.5 mL/kg/h) with a combination solution of xylazine (0.1 mg/mL), guaifenesin (50 mg/mL), and ketamine (1.0 mg/mL). For calves in the isoflurane group, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The rates of XGK infusion and isoflurane administration were adjusted to achieve suitable anesthetic depth. All calves received 100% oxygen and were mechanically ventilated to maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations from 35 to 40 mm Hg and underwent laparoscopic bladder surgery through an abdominal approach. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before induction and at intervals up to 90 minutes after anesthetic induction.

Results—The quality of induction was excellent in all calves. The XGK requirements were 0.57 ± 0.18 mL/kg and 2.70 ± 0.40 mL/kg/h to induce and maintain anesthesia, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline throughout the anesthetic period in the XGK group. Systolic arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the XGK group, compared with the isoflurane group, from 5 to 90 minutes. Cardiac index was lower than baseline in both groups. Differences between groups in cardiac index and arterial blood gas values were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of XGK resulted in excellent anesthetic induction and maintenance with cardiopulmonary alterations similar to those associated with isoflurane in mechanically ventilated calves.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) or vaccination with serologic response in calves.

ANIMALS 94 Holstein calves.

PROCEDURES To assess the association between BRD and antibody titers, 38 calves < 3 months old that were treated for BRD were matched with 38 untreated calves. To investigate the effect of vaccination on antibody titers, 24 calves were randomly assigned to be vaccinated against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 2 weeks of age (n = 6), 5 weeks of age (6), and both 2 and 5 weeks of age (6) or were assigned to be unvaccinated controls (6). Blood samples were obtained at I, 2, 5, and 12 weeks for determination of serum neutralization antibody titers against the vaccine viruses, bovine coronavirus, and Mannheimia haemolytica. Antibody rates of decay were calculated.

RESULTS Calves with initial antibody titers against BRSV < 1:64 that were treated for BRD had a slower rate of anti-BRSV antibody decay than did similar calves that were not treated for BRD. Calves with high initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1 had lower odds of BRD than did calves with low initial antibody titers against those 2 pathogens. Vaccination at 2 or 5 weeks of age had no effect on the rate of antibody decay.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical BRD and the serologic response of dairy calves were associated with initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1. Serologic or clinical responses to viral exposure may differ in calves with low passive immunity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research