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- Author or Editor: Claire Vergneau-Grosset x
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Doses of buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) up to 1000 mg/L for 15 minutes are reported inefficient to produce euthanasia in goldfish. The goal of this study was to determine if goldfish can be euthanized by more prolonged immersion in MS-222.
24 healthy goldfish (weight range: 1 to 10 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 fish.
The first group (G1) was exposed to 500 mg/L buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours and 18 hours respectively. The fourth group (G4) was exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 60 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. Time to cessation and return of operculation were recorded. If the goldfish did not resume operculation, heart rate was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonic flow detector.
Median times to apnea were 35 seconds at 1000 mg/L and 65 seconds at 500 mg/L. Re-operculation occurred only in G1 in 5 out of 6 individuals. All fish from G1, 3 fish from G2, 0 fish from G3, 1 fish from G4 had remaining heartbeats at the end of the observation period.
Overall, a dose of 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes was efficient to euthanize juvenile goldfish at 20 °C. Different fish body mass and water quality parameters might explain different results compared to previous studies.
To identify characteristics of antebrachial fractures associated with a successful outcome (ie, bird released back into the wild after regaining normal flight ability, without being returned to the rehabilitation program within 1 month afterward) for free-ranging birds of prey admitted to a rehabilitation program.
620 birds of prey (representing 24 species) with antebrachial fractures admitted alive to a rehabilitation program from August 1986 through December 2015.
The medical record of each bird was reviewed to obtain information on species, age, sex, year of admission, fracture characteristics, and treatments administered. Outcome was classified as successful or unsuccessful on the basis of available data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify fracture characteristics associated with outcome.
519 of 620 (84%) birds received treatment, and a successful outcome was recorded for 245 (47%) treated birds. Birds with closed (vs open) fractures were significantly more likely to have a successful outcome. Birds with concomitant radial and ulnar fractures involving the same third of the antebrachium (vs other types of antebrachial fractures) were significantly less likely to have a successful outcome, although birds with this type of fracture were significantly more likely to have a successful outcome when the fracture was localized to the middle or distal (vs proximal) third of the antebrachium.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The characteristics of antebrachial fractures associated with a successful or unsuccessful outcome in this study may be useful in the development of triage protocols for birds of prey in other rehabilitation centers.
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized.
RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.
OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record information was available.
PROCEDURES Information from medical records was used to identify leopard geckos with ophthalmic disease, characterize cases, and determine risk factors for the presence of ophthalmic disease.
RESULTS Of the 112 leopard geckos, 52 (46%) had ophthalmic disease (mainly corneal or conjunctival disease). Female geckos were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, and there was a positive association between increasing age and ophthalmic disease. Use of a paper towel substrate, absence of any heat source, and lack of vitamin A supplementation were positively associated with a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Head dysecdysis was the only concurrent disorder significantly associated with ophthalmic disease. At necropsy, 5 affected leopard geckos had squamous metaplasia of the conjunctivae.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ophthalmic disease is a common finding in leopard geckos. The cause of ocular surface disease in leopard geckos may be multifactorial, and hypovitaminosis A may be an important risk factor. Although animals receiving supplemental vitamin A were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, further understanding is required regarding the metabolism of and nutritional requirements for vitamin A in leopard geckos.