To investigate the effects of hemorrhagic shock and fresh whole blood resuscitation on the microcirculation and endothelial glycocalyx using sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging and plasma biomarkers.
8 purpose-bred dogs.
Pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized dogs. SDF measurement of perfused boundary region and microcirculatory variables (RBC flow, total vessel density, and relative and absolute capillary blood volume), biomarker measurement (heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, VE-cadherin, and syndecan-1), mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output measurement were performed before anesthesia (TP0), after induction (TP1), after hemorrhagic shock (TP2), and after 50% retransfusion (TP3) and 100% retransfusion (TP4).
At TP1, TP2, TP3, and TP4, mean arterial blood pressure was 74.25 ± 7.17 mm Hg, 49.50 ± 13.74 mm Hg, 63.50 ± 13.29 mm Hg, and 71.38 ± 8.77 mm Hg, and cardiac output was 2.57 ± 1.01 L/min, 0.8 ± 0.36 L/min, 1.81 ± 0.57 L/min, and 2.93 ± 1.22 L/min, respectively. Heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, syndecan-1, and VE-cadherin ranges were 24.80 to 77.72 ng/mL, 5.77 to 105.06 ng/mL, below detection to 1,545.69 pg/mL, and 0 to 2.52 ng/mL, respectively. Perfused boundary region, RBC flow, total vessel density, and relative and absolute capillary blood volume ranges were 1.75 to 2.68 µm, 89.6 to 584.5 µm/s, 51.7 to 1,914.3 mm/m2, 0.94 to 1.53 103 μm3, and 1.50 to 94.30 103 μm3, respectively. Heparan sulfate decreased significantly over time (P = .016). No significant differences were found for microcirculatory variables, perfused boundary regions, or other biomarkers.
This was the first study to assess microvascular dysfunction and endothelial shedding in a canine hemorrhagic shock model using SDF microscopy (Glycocheck) and plasma biomarkers. Further studies are needed to determine clinical relevance.