OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.
DESIGN Observational study.
ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]).
RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.
Objective—To compare clinical findings and inflammatory mediator production among cats with sepsis, cats with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and healthy cats.
Animals—Cats with sepsis (n = 16) or SIRS (19) and 8 healthy control cats.
Procedures—Clinical variables were recorded for each cat, and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1β activities and IL-6 and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8 concentrations were determined at initial evaluation.
Results—Clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with sepsis in cats included a high band neutrophil percentage, eosinopenia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. When the sepsis and SIRS groups were compared, the only significant differences in the CBC and plasma biochemical findings were band neutrophil percentage and albumin concentration. Cats with sepsis had significantly greater plasma TNF activity than did healthy cats and were more likely to have detectable concentrations of IL-6 than were cats with SIRS or healthy cats. Plasma IL-1β activity did not differ among groups, and CXCL-8 was not detectable in most (32/43) cats. Mortality rate was not significantly greater for cats with sepsis (7/16) than for cats with SIRS (5/19). Plasma IL-1β activity and IL-6 and chloride concentrations were the only variables correlated with nonsurvival in the sepsis group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with sepsis may have various clinicopathologic abnormalities but are more likely to have a high band neutrophil percentage and hypoalbuminemia than cats with noninfectious SIRS. Plasma interleukin-1β activity and plasma IL-6 and chloride concentrations may be useful prognostic biomarkers for septic cats.
Case Description—A dog was referred for treatment after ingestion of quick-dissolve chlorine granules intended for use in a swimming pool.
Clinical Findings—At evaluation 18 hours after ingestion of the granules, the dog had tachypnea, signs of depression, approximately 5% dehydration, oral mucositis, and a productive cough. Increased respiratory tract sounds and wheezes were ausculted in all lung fields. Complete blood count revealed erythrocytosis and lymphopenia. Serum biochemical analyses revealed mildly high activities of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Arterial blood gas concentrations were consistent with hypoxemia and hyperventilation. Thoracic radiography revealed widespread pulmonary alveolar infiltrates predominantly affecting the ventral portions of both lungs, consistent with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema secondary to aspiration of the granulated chlorine.
Treatment and Outcome—Initial treatment included IV administration of an electrolyte solution with supplemental KCl, ranitidine, furosemide, cefotaxime, buprenorphine, and supplemental oxygen. Subsequent treatment included administration of meloxicam and an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube. Endoscopic examination revealed esophagitis and mild gastritis; therefore, metoclopramide and sucralfate were also administered. Fifteen days later, the gastrostomy tube was removed prior to discharge; endoscopic examination revealed grossly normal esophageal and gastric mucosa, and thoracic radiography revealed complete resolution of the lung lesions.
Clinical Relevance—Although ingestion of granulated chlorine is rare in veterinary patients, the resulting disease processes are common and can be treated successfully.
Objective—To determine hospital admission variables for dogs with trauma including values determined with scoring systems (animal trauma triage [ATT], modified Glasgow coma scale [MGCS], and acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation [APPLE] scores) and the usefulness of such variables for the prediction of outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge).
Design—Prospective, multicenter, cohort study.
Animals—315 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—By use of a Web-based data capture system, trained personnel prospectively recorded admission ATT, MGCS, and APPLE scores; clinical and laboratory data; and outcome (death vs survival to discharge) for dogs with trauma at 4 veterinary teaching hospitals during an 8-week period.
Results—Cause of injury was most commonly blunt trauma (173/315 [54.9%]) followed by penetrating trauma (107/315 [34.0%]), or was unknown (35/315 [11.1%]). Of the 315 dogs, 285 (90.5%) survived to hospital discharge. When 16 dogs euthanized because of cost were excluded, dogs with blunt trauma were more likely to survive, compared with dogs with penetrating trauma (OR, 8.5). The ATT (OR, 2.0) and MGCS (OR, 0.47) scores and blood lactate concentration (OR, 1.5) at the time of hospital admission were predictive of outcome. Surgical procedures were performed for 157 (49.8%) dogs; surgery was associated with survival to discharge (OR, 7.1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated ATT and MGCS scores were useful for prediction of outcome for dogs evaluated because of trauma. Penetrating trauma, low blood lactate concentration, and performance of surgical procedures were predictive of survival to hospital discharge. The methods enabled collection of data for a large number of dogs in a short time.
Objective—To evaluate the clinical course of dogs with hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) and to determine whether factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) was associated with severity of clinical signs and outcome.
Sample—Respondent information for 39 client-owned dogs with FVIII deficiency.
Procedures—Information was obtained via a survey distributed to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care email list serves and to the Veterinary Information Network community to identify dogs with hemophilia A (FVIII:C ≤ 20%). Severity of FVIII deficiency was classified as mild (FVIII:C, 6% to 20%), moderate (FVIII:C, 2% to 5%), or severe (FVIII:C, < 2%).
Results—Data for 39 dogs (38 males and 1 female) were compiled. Mixed-breed dogs, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers were most commonly affected. In most (34/39) dogs, disease was diagnosed at < 1 year of age. Bleeding associated with teething, minor trauma, vaccination, and elective surgical procedures most commonly prompted FVIII:C testing. Affected dogs had similar signs of spontaneous hemorrhage regardless of the magnitude of FVIII deficiency. Four dogs were euthanized without treatment at the time of diagnosis. Thirty dogs received ≥ 1 blood transfusion; FVIII:C did not appear to influence transfusion requirements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with hemophilia A have variations in clinical course of the disease and may have a good long-term prognosis. Residual FVIII:C may not be useful for predicting severity of clinical signs, transfusion needs, or long-term prognosis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of urinary bladder lavage on in-hospital recurrence of urethral obstruction (UO) and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization for male cats.
DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.
ANIMALS 137 male cats with UO.
PROCEDURES Following random allocation, cats either did (flush group; n = 69) or did not (no-flush group; 68) undergo urinary bladder lavage with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after alleviation of the obstruction and placement of a urethral catheter. Signalment, prior history of UO, presence of crystalluria, difficulty of urinary tract catheterization, in-hospital UO recurrence rate, and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization were compared between the flush and no-flush groups.
RESULTS Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. The in-hospital UO recurrence rate (9/69 [13%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (37 hours; range, 3 to 172 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 0.5 to 12 days) for the flush group did not differ significantly from the in-hospital UO recurrence rate (13/68 [19%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (36 hours; range, 1 to 117 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 1 to 9 days) for the no-flush group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, for male cats with UO, urinary bladder lavage at the time of urethral catheterization had no significant effect on in-hospital recurrence rate of the condition, duration of urinary catheter retention, or duration of hospitalization; however, additional studies are necessary to validate or refute these findings.