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  • Author or Editor: Claire B. Andreasen x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the potential of excess dietary iron to cause hepatic lesions similar to those described in horses with suspected iron toxicosis or hemochromatosis.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 adult male ponies.

Procedure—4 ponies received 50 mg of iron/kg (22.7 mg/lb) of body weight each day by oral administration of ferrous sulfate, which contained 20% elemental iron; 2 ponies received only the carrier (applesauce). Complete blood counts, serum biochemical analyses, and hepatic tissue biopsies were performed, and serum iron concentrations were measured. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at days 0 and 2, and at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, and 8 after administration of iron was initiated. Treatment was discontinued after 8 weeks, and hepatic iron concentrations were measured at 28 weeks.

Results—Hepatic iron concentrations, serum iron concentrations, percentage saturation of transferrin, and serum ferritin concentrations were increased, compared with baseline and control concentrations, by week 8. Adverse clinical signs or histologic lesions in the liver were not detected in any ponies. At 28 weeks, hepatic iron concentrations had decreased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Histologic lesions were not seen in the hepatic biopsy specimens obtained from the ponies treated with ferrous sulfate. It was concluded that it would be unlikely for iron toxicosis to develop in adult ponies or horses during a period of < 8 weeks when food or water contained increased amounts of iron. It is suspected that previous reports of hepatopathies in animals with hemosiderin accumulation may represent a primary hepatopathy with secondary hemosiderin accumulation, especially if the only source of iron is via oral consumption. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 400–404)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a nonionic detergent (Triton WR 1339) can be used in cats to assess hepatic secretion of triglyceride.

Animals—28 healthy cats.

Procedure—Triton WR 1339 was administered IV according to the following schedule: 5, 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg of body weight. Control cats did not receive an injection or received 0.9% NaCl or PBS solutions at the same osmolarity and volume as the 250 mg/kg group. Blood samples were collected throughout the 48-hour period after administration for determination of triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations and for RBC morphology and osmotic fragility studies.

Results—Administration of Triton WR 1339 at 150 and 250 mg/kg caused profound hypertriglyceridemia. Triglyceride concentrations increased in a curvilinear fashion for the first 2 hours and remained increased for approximately 24 hours. Area under the time-concentration curve for triglyceride at 5 hours differed significantly among groups. At 12 and 24 hours, cholesterol was significantly higher in cats receiving 250 mg/kg. The most dramatic changes in osmotic fragility and RBC morphology were in cats receiving 250 mg/kg; 1 of these cats developed severe icterus and died 5 days later. Feeding rice and casein before administering Triton WR 1339 at 150 mg/kg did not appear to affect the hypertriglyceridemia response.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triton WR 1339 can be administered IV to cats at a rate of 150 mg/kg to assess hepatic triglyceride secretion, although some cats may have increased RBC osmotic fragility. Higher dosages caused substantial adverse effects, whereas lower dosages did not alter plasma triglyceride concentration. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:941–950)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for inducing acute leptospirosis in dogs.

Animals—31 nine-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Beagles were randomly assigned to 2 inoculation groups or a control group. Dogs were inoculated on 3 successive days by conjunctival instillation of 5 X 107 cells of Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 (12 dogs) or strain RM 52 (14 dogs). Control dogs (n = 5) were similarly inoculated with sterile leptospiral culture media. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic variables, anti-leptospiral antibody titers, and evidence of leptospires in tissues and body fluids were evaluated. Dogs were euthanatized and necropsied on days 7, 14, 22, or 28 after inoculation or as required because of severe illness.

Results—Clinical signs in infected dogs included conjunctivitis, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and icterus. Consistent clinicopathologic alterations included azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased anion gap, hyperbilirubinemia, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Leptospires were cultured from the kidneys (11/12), urine (6/9), aqueous humor (9/12), blood (12/12), and liver (12/12) of dogs inoculated with strain 82. Only 3 of 14 dogs became infected after inoculation with strain RM 52. Histopathologic lesions in infected dogs included interstitial nephritis, renal tubular degeneration and necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hepatic edema and perivasculitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Conjunctival exposure to L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, but only 3 of 14 dogs inoculated with strain RM 52 became infected. This method of infection by serovar grippotyphosa can be used to study the pathogenesis and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1100–1107)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophilassociated injury during pneumonia induced by Mannheimia haemolytica and concentration of antimicrobial anionic peptide (AAP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as antimicrobial activity of BALF from healthy (control) neonatal calves, neonatal calves with M haemolytica-induced pneumonia, neonatal calves with prior treatment with TBC1269, and adult cattle.

Animals—Eighteen 1- to 3-day-old calves and 9 adult cattle.

Procedure—Calves were inoculated with M haemolyticaor pyrogen-free saline (0.14M NaCl) solution into the right cranial lung lobe, and BALF was collected 2 or 6 hours after inoculation. Thirty minutes before and 2 hours after inoculation, 4 calves received TBC1269. The BALF collected from 9 adult cattle was used for comparison of BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity. Protein concentration and neutrophil differential percentage and degeneration in BALF were determined. An ELISA and killing assay were used to determine BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity, respectively.

Results—Total protein concentration was significantly decreased in BALF from calves receiving TBC1269. Similar concentrations of AAP were detected in BALF from all calves, which were 3-fold higher than those in BALF from adult cattle. However, BALF from neonates had little or no anti-M haemolytica activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results suggest that TBC1269 decreases pulmonary tissue injury in neonatal calves infected with M haemolytica. Although AAP is detectable in neonatal BALF at 3 times the concentration detected in adult BALF, neonatal BALF lacks antimicrobial activity for M haemolytica. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:665–672)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs.

Animals—Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 ×107 L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20.

Results—Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava–inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona–inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona–infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona–inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1816–1822)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the ease and effects of collecting blood from cats by use of subcutaneous totally implantable vascular access ports (VAPs) with collection via conventional jugular phlebotomy.

Design—Prospective randomized experimental study.

Animals—8 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats in the port group (n = 4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of VAPs and manual restraint, and cats in the nonport group (4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of conventional jugular phlebotomy and sedation, for 6 months.

Results—Postsurgical VAP-related complications developed in 3 cats and included port erosion (n = 1), disconnection of the port from the catheter (1), and seroma formation (1). Blood was successfully collected 24 of 24 and 20 of 20 times in the nonport and port groups, respectively. Results of bacterial culture of blood were negative in 22 of 24 and 15 of 20 nonport and port collections, respectively. No differences in RBC morphology were observed between groups. Mean blood collection and total donation times were significantly longer for the nonport group. Collection time was more variable in the nonport group, and cats were less tolerant of handling during venipuncture, compared with cats in the port group. Blood collection required a mean of 2.4 persons for the nonport group and 2.1 persons for the port group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results for blood collections via VAPs were increased donor acceptance, decreased number of personnel required, and decreased collection time. Drawbacks included contamination of blood products and port-related complications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association