Objective—To determine the prevalence of circumcaval ureters and other caudal vena cava variations in cats and determine whether circumcaval ureters were associated with macroscopic evidence of ureteral obstruction.
Sample—301 domestic cat cadavers obtained from an animal shelter.
Procedures—All cat cadavers were examined, and anatomic variations of the ureters and caudal vena cava were recorded. In cadavers with a circumcaval ureter, kidney length, width, and height were measured, and the ureters were examined macroscopically to determine whether there was gross evidence of ureteral obstruction in cats with circumcaval ureters.
Results—At least 1 circumcaval ureter was present in 106 of the 301 (35.2%) cats, with a right circumcaval ureter identified in 92 (30.6%) cats, a left circumcaval ureter identified in 4 (1.3%), and bilateral circumcaval ureters identified in 10 (3.3%). Twenty-one (7.0%) cats had a double caudal vena cava, including 2 cats in which the double caudal vena cava was the only anatomic abnormality identified. No sex predilection for anatomic abnormalities was found. Mean right kidney length was significantly greater than mean left kidney length in cats with a right circumcaval ureter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circumcaval ureter was present in approximately a third of cats in this study. Variation in the development of the caudal vena cava is the proposed cause. The clinical relevance of this variation is unknown.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of arthrotomy alone or in combination with osteotomy of the proximal portion of the tibia on blood delivery to the patellar tendon of dogs.
SAMPLE 24 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES One hind limb from each cadaver was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: medial arthrotomy (MA; MA group), lateral arthrotomy (LA; LA group), MA and LA with tibial tuberosity transposition (MALA group), and MA with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO; TPLO group). The contralateral hind limb served as the control sample. Contrast solution (barium [33%], India ink [17%], and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [50%]) was injected through an 8F catheter inserted in the caudal portion of the abdominal aorta. Limbs were radiographed to allow examination of vascular filling. The patella, patellar tendon, and tibial crest were harvested, radiographed to allow examination of tissue vascular filling, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Vessels perfused with contrast solution were counted in sections obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of each patellar tendon.
RESULTS Vessel counts did not differ significantly among the 3 tendon regions. Compared with results for the control group, delivery of contrast solution to the patellar tendon was significantly decreased in the MALA and TPLO groups but was not changed in the MA or LA groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that surgical procedures used to treat cranial cruciate injuries (ie, TPLO) and patellar luxation decreased blood delivery to the patellar tendon of canine cadavers, at least acutely.
Objective—To describe the degree of and variability
in the level of client compliance and identify determinants
of client compliance with short-term administration
of antimicrobial medications to dogs.
Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed
Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate
when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data
were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of
a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an
electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians
also completed a questionnaire that asked
them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing
compliance were compared with nonparametric
tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to
investigate potential determinants of compliance.
Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed
container openings, 91% of days when the
correct number of doses were given, and 64% of
doses given on time as assessed by the electronic
medication monitoring devices were significantly
lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for
client self-report of missing doses and pill count.
Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance.
The dosage regimen significantly determined
compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or
twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant,
compared with 3 times daily dosing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination
of reported missed doses and pill counts was a
significant predictor of compliance as measured by
electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided
useful information only when they were used
appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and
performing pill counts are the most practical assessments
of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine tracheal mucociliary clearance
rate (TMCCR) by use of a standard protocol in
healthy anesthetized cats and to determine the effect
of theophylline on TMCCR in healthy anesthetized
Animals—6 healthy cats.
Procedure—Cats were anesthetized with propofol,
and a droplet of the radiopharmaceutical technetium
Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin was placed endoscopically
at the carina. Dynamic acquisition scintigraphic
imaging was performed, using the larynx as
the end point. The TMCCR was determined by measuring
the distance the droplet traveled by frame rate.
Each cat was imaged 6 times as follows: 3 times following
placebo administration and 3 times following
the administration of sustained release theophylline
(25 mg/kg, PO). Serum theophylline concentrations
were assessed during imaging to ensure therapeutic
Results—The TMCCR in healthy adult cats anesthetized
with propofol was 22.2 ± 2.8 mm/min.
Tracheal mucociliary clearance rate in cats receiving
theophylline was 21.8 ± 3.5 mm/min. Theophylline
administration did not significantly alter TMCCR.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Theophylline
has been shown to increase TMCCR in humans and
dogs. In our study, we determined TMCCR in healthy
anesthetized cats and found that it was not accelerated
by the administration of theophylline. (Am J Vet