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  • Author or Editor: Chul Park x
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OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiac structural and functional changes by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging in dogs with spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs, of which 10 had normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus and 20 were healthy.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent physical examination, laboratory analyses, standard echocardiography, and TDI.

RESULTS On TDI and strain imaging, transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E)-to-tissue Doppler–derived peak early diastolic velocity at basal segment (E') of septum ratio, E:lateral E’ ratio, and septal tissue Doppler–derived peak late diastolic velocity at basal segment (A') were significantly higher and the septal E':A’ ratio and lateral longitudinal strain were significantly lower for diabetic dogs than for control dogs. Furthermore, in diabetic dogs, serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations after a 12-hour period of food withholding were positively correlated with regional systolic functional variables (septal and lateral longitudinal strain) and left ventricular filling pressure indices (E:septal E’ and E:lateral E’ ratios) but were negatively correlated with diastolic functional variables (E:transmitral peak late diastolic velocity and septal and lateral E':A’ ratios).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that myocardial function in diabetic dogs may be altered before the development of clinical heart-associated signs and that the change may be more readily detected by TDI and strain imaging than by conventional echocardiography. In addition, findings indicated that hyperglycemia could have detrimental effects on myocardial function, independent of hypertension, other cardiac diseases, and left ventricular hypertrophy, in dogs with type 1 diabetes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the diagnostic value of pulmonary-vein-to-pulmonary-artery ratio (PV:PA) in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD), classified according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) consensus guidelines.


80 client-owned dogs with either MMVD (n = 65) or no cardiovascular disease (control group; n = 15) between August 5, 2020, and July 19, 2023.


This is a retrospective study. Dogs with MMVD were classified according to ACVIM consensus guidelines. Echocardiograms, thoracic radiographs, and other measurements needed in this study were reviewed in all dogs. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between the PV:PA and the following variables: vertebral heart size, vertebral left atrial size, left-atrium-to-aorta ratio, normalized left ventricular internal diameter, and peak transmitral early diastolic velocity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the value of PV:PA in distinguishing between stages B1 and B2 and stages B2 and C.


All conventional indices showed correlations with PV:PA. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for stages B1 and B2 was 0.83, and the cutoff value for differentiating stage B2 was 1.52. The AUC for stages B2 and C was 0.81, and the cutoff value for differentiating stage C was 2.09.


PV:PA was significantly different between control and the stage B1 group, stage B1 and B2 group, and stage B2 and C group. PV:PA can be an index that can be used in evaluating MMVD dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research