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To collect information from US state animal health officials (SAHOs) and beef feedlot managers and veterinarians regarding emergency response plans for movement of cattle in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in North America.


36 SAHOs, 26 feedlot veterinarians, and 7 feedlot managers.


3 versions of an electronic questionnaire were created and distributed to SAHOs and US feedlot veterinarians and managers to gather information about planned or expected responses to an FMD outbreak that originated at 1 of 3 geographic locations (Mexico or Canada, a bordering state, or a nonbordering state). Descriptive data were reported.


All respondents recognized that the risk of FMD transmission to livestock in their area or care increased as the outbreak got closer in proximity to their location. Most SAHOs indicated that they would immediately close their state’s borders to livestock movement at the beginning of an FMD outbreak, particularly if the disease was identified in a bordering state. During an extended FMD outbreak, 29 of 36 (80.6%) SAHOs reported they would resume interstate movement of cattle under some conditions, including enhanced permitting, whereas feedlot veterinarians and managers commonly reported they would be willing to receive cattle from states where no FMD-infected animals were identified, regardless of permit requirements.


Information gained from this survey can be used to inform disease modeling and preparedness efforts to facilitate business continuity of US beef feedlots in the event of an FMD outbreak in North America.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Overview of Outcomes Research

Outcomes research entails the application of clinical- and population-based research methods to optimize the end results of health-care practices and interventions, delivering benefits and value to stakeholders.1 Widely used in human health care, outcomes research principles can assist health-care providers and their patients in making decisions regarding medical costs while weighing available treatment options. The overarching goal of health-care providers should be to achieve clinical outcomes and improve value for patients. Value, however, is not the same as low cost. Porter and Lee2 defined value as the health-related outcomes that matter to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association