To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorescence tracer agent, MB-102, for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.
10 ophthalmologically normal dogs (2 to 4 years old) and 10 dogs with retinal degeneration or primary open-angle glaucoma (< 6 years old).
While anesthetized, all dogs received sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg, IV) or MB-102 (20 or 40 mg/kg, IV) first and then the other dye in a second treatment session 2 days later in a randomized crossover design. Anterior fluorescence angiography was performed on one eye and posterior fluorescence angiography on the other. Imaging was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adaptor system. Filter sets that were tailored to match the excitation and emission characteristics of each angiographic fluorescent agent were used.
All phases and phase intervals during anterior and posterior segment angiography were identified, regardless of the dye used. However, agent fluorescence and visualization of the iridal blood vessels were hindered in some dogs, irrespective of agent, owing to the degree of iridal pigmentation present. No significant difference was noted between the 2 dyes in any phase or phase interval, and slight improvement in image contrast was observed with MB-102 during the venous phases owing to a reduction of vessel wall staining in both normal and diseased eyes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that MB-102 would be useful for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.
Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding
pattern, and association of bovine torovirus
(BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival
and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their
arrival on a veal farm.
Animals—62 veal calves.
Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14,
and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of
ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples
obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were
analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination
inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened
for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus,
and Cryptosporidium spp.
Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15
of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay,
with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent
association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea
was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2
enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea
than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were
seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV
(≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival
seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer);
these calves were more likely to shed virus than
calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of
BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal
veal calves during the first week after arrival at the
farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an
important pathogen of neonatal veal calves.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)
Objective—To determine relative concentrations of selected major brain tissue metabolites and their ratios and lobar variations by use of 3-T proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain of healthy dogs.
Animals—10 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—3-T 1H MRS at echo times of 144 and 35 milliseconds was performed on 5 transverse slices and 1 sagittal slice of representative brain lobe regions. Intravoxel parenchyma was classified as white matter, gray matter, or mixed (gray and white) and analyzed for relative concentrations (in arbitrary units) of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine (ie, height at position of peak on MRS graph) as well as their ratios (NAA-to-choline, NAA-to-creatine, and choline-to-creatine ratios). Peak heights for metabolites were compared between echo times. Peak heights for metabolites and their ratios were correlated and evaluated among matter types. Yield was calculated as interpretable voxels divided by available lobar voxels.
Results—Reference ranges of the metabolite concentration ratios were determined at an echo time of 35 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 1.055 to 2.224; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 1.103 to 2.161; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.759 to 1.332) and 144 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 0.687 to 1.788; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 0.984 to 2.044; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.828 to 1.853). Metabolite concentration ratios were greater in white matter than in gray matter. Voxel yields ranged from 43% for the temporal lobe to 100% for the thalamus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Metabolite concentrations and concentration ratios determined with 3-T 1H MRS were not identical to those in humans and were determined for clinical and research investigations of canine brain disease.
OBJECTIVE To identify factors affecting the diagnostic quality of core needle renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 522 client-owned dogs with suspected kidney disease for which core needle renal biopsy specimens (n = 1,089) were submitted to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service for evaluation and inclusion in their database.
PROCEDURES Data regarding dog signalment, clinical variables, biopsy method, needle brand and gauge, biopsy results, and other variables were extracted from the database. Variables were tested for association with 3 outcomes of light microscopic evaluation of core specimens: number of glomeruli per core specimen, obtainment of < 10 glomeruli, and presence or absence of renal medullary tissue.
RESULTS Number of glomeruli per core specimen was significantly associated with needle gauge, dog age, serum creatinine concentration, and degree of proteinuria, whereas biopsy method and submitting hospital were significantly associated with the presence of renal medullary tissue in specimens. Mean numbers of glomeruli per core specimen obtained with 14- or 16-gauge needles were similar, but both were significantly greater than the mean number obtained with 18-gauge needles. Needle gauge had a similar association with the likelihood of obtaining < 10 glomeruli in a core specimen. Specimens obtained via laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches more commonly contained medullary tissue than those obtained by ultrasound-guided approaches.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, findings suggested that ultrasound-guided biopsy with a 16-gauge needle should maximize the diagnostic quality of renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease, while avoiding potential adverse effects caused by larger needles.
Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.
Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.
Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.
Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.
Objective—To determine the minimum alveolar concentration
(MAC) of sevoflurane in spontaneously
breathing llamas and alpacas.
Animals—6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult
Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane
delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal
tube was inserted, and a port for continuous
measurement of end-tidal and inspired sevoflurane
concentrations was placed between the endotracheal
tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an
end-tidal-to-inspired sevoflurane concentration ratio
> 0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus
was applied to the antebrachium until a response
was obtained (ie, gross purposeful movement) or for
up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or
decreased to effect a 10 to 20% change in end-tidal
sevoflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus
were repeated. The MAC was defined as the
mean of the lowest end-tidal sevoflurane concentration
that prevented a positive response and the highest
concentration that allowed a positive response.
Results—Mean ± SD MAC of sevoflurane was 2.29 ±
0.14% in llamas and 2.33 ± 0.09% in alpacas.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The MAC of
sevoflurane in llamas and alpacas was similar to that
reported for other species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
radiography, ultrasonography, and antegrade pyelography
for detection of ureteral obstructions in cats.
Procedure—Medical records of cats that had radiography,
ultrasonography, and antegrade pyelography
performed for suspected ureteral obstructions were
examined. Ultrasound-guided pyelocentesis and fluoroscopic-
assisted antegrade pyelography were performed
on 18 kidneys in 11 cats. Obstructive ureteral
lesions were confirmed in all cats by surgical or
necropsy examination. Sensitivity and specificity of
survey radiography, ultrasonography, and antegrade
pyelography for identification of ureteral obstructions
were calculated. Surgical or necropsy findings were
used as the standard for comparison.
Results—All cats were azotemic. Mean ± SD serum
creatinine and BUN concentrations were 10.2 ± 6.1
and 149 ± 82 mg/dL, respectively. Fifteen of 18
ureters were found to be obstructed at surgery or
necropsy. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and
100% for radiography and 100 and 33% for ultrasonography,
respectively, in identification of ureteral
obstructions. Leakage of contrast material developed
in 8 of 18 kidneys during antegrade pyelography and
prevented diagnostic interpretation in 5 of 18 studies.
For the 13 diagnostic studies, specificity and sensitivity
were 100% by use of the antegrade pyelography
technique. Correct identification of the anatomic location
of the ureteral obstruction was obtained in 100%
of diagnostic antegrade pyelography studies and in
60% of radiography or ultrasonography studies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Antegrade
pyelography can be a useful alternative in the diagnosis
and localization of ureteral obstructions in
azotemic cats, although leakage of contrast material
may prevent interpretation of the study. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;222:1576–1581)
Objective—To investigate the effect of opsonization of Rhodococcus equi with R equi-specific antibodies in plasma on bacterial viability and phagocyte activation in a cell culture model of infection.
Sample—Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages from 6 healthy 1-week-old foals and 1 adult horse.
Procedures—Foal and adult horse phagocytes were incubated with either opsonized or nonopsonized bacteria. Opsonization was achieved by use of plasma containing high or low concentrations of R equi-specific antibodies. Phagocyte oxidative burst activity was measured by use of flow cytometry, and macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured via an ELISA. Extracellular and intracellular bacterial viability was measured with a novel R equi-luciferase construct that used a luminometer.
Results—Opsonized bacteria increased oxidative burst activity in adult horse phagocytes, and neutrophil activity was dependent on the concentration of specific antibody. Secretion of TNF-α was higher in macrophages infected with opsonized bacteria. Opsonization had no significant effect on bacterial viability in macrophages; however, extracellular bacterial viability was decreased in broth containing plasma with R equi-specific antibodies, compared with viability in broth alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of plasma enriched with specific antibodies for the opsonization of R equi increased the activation of phagocytes and decreased bacterial viability in the extracellular space. Although opsonized R equi increased TNF-α secretion and oxidative burst in macrophages, additional factors may be necessary for effective intracellular bacterial killing. These data have suggested a possible role of plasma antibody in protection of foals from R equi pneumonia.
Objective—To determine outcome of medical and
surgical treatment in cats with ureteral calculi.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.
Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted
for follow-up information.
Results—All cats were initially treated medically before
a decision was made to perform surgery. Medical treatment
included parenteral administration of fluids and
diuretics to promote urine production and passage of
the ureteral calculus and supportive treatment for renal
failure. Ureteral calculi in the proximal portion of the
ureter were typically removed by ureterotomy, whereas
ureteral calculi in the distal portion of the ureter were
more likely to be removed by partial ureterectomy and
ureteroneocystostomy. Ureterotomy could be performed
without placement of a nephrostomy tube for
postoperative urine diversion. Postoperative complication
rate and perioperative mortality rate were 31% and
18%, respectively. The most common postoperative
complications were urine leakage and persistent ureteral
obstruction after surgery. Chronic renal failure was
common at the time of diagnosis and continued after
treatment, with serum creatinine concentration remaining
greater than the upper reference limit in approximately
half the cats. Twelve-month survival rates after
medical and surgical treatment were 66% and 91%,
respectively, with a number of cats dying of causes
related to urinary tract disorders, including ureteral calculus
recurrence and worsening of chronic renal failure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that medical and surgical management of ureteral
calculi in cats are associated with high morbidity
and mortality rates. Treatment can stabilize renal function,
although many surviving cats will continue to
have impaired renal function. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
OBJECTIVE To characterize findings in Shih Tzus with progressive superficial necrolytic dermatitis and degenerative vacuolar hepatopathy consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 31 Shih Tzus.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to obtain information on signalment, history, treatment, outcome, and results of clinicopathologic testing, abdominal ultrasonography, and histologic examination of skin and liver specimens. A pedigree analysis was performed.
RESULTS There were 16 males and 15 females. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 8 years (range, 5 to 14 years). Common clinical signs included lethargy, inappetence, weight loss, and lameness. Twenty-five dogs had cutaneous lesions consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome; the remaining 6 initially only had hepatic abnormalities, but 3 of the 6 subsequently developed cutaneous lesions. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included microcytosis (15/24 [63%] dogs) and high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (24/24 [100%] dogs). Hepatic ultrasonographic findings included a hyperechoic or heteroechoic appearance to the parenchyma with innumerable hypoechoic nodules. Histologic hepatic lesions consisted of degenerative vacuolar (glycogen and lipid) hepatopathy associated with minimally fibrotic to nonfibrotic, noninflammatory, proliferative nodules. Pedigree analysis confirmed a common ancestry in 12 of 18 dogs. Median survival time was 3 months (range, 1 to 36 months).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that HCS may have a heritable component in Shih Tzus, although the condition may also be identified in Shih Tzus without affected relatives. Clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and histologic abnormalities in affected Shih Tzus were similar to those previously reported for dogs of other breeds with HCS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:802–813)