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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorescence tracer agent, MB-102, for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.

ANIMALS

10 ophthalmologically normal dogs (2 to 4 years old) and 10 dogs with retinal degeneration or primary open-angle glaucoma (< 6 years old).

PROCEDURES

While anesthetized, all dogs received sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg, IV) or MB-102 (20 or 40 mg/kg, IV) first and then the other dye in a second treatment session 2 days later in a randomized crossover design. Anterior fluorescence angiography was performed on one eye and posterior fluorescence angiography on the other. Imaging was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adaptor system. Filter sets that were tailored to match the excitation and emission characteristics of each angiographic fluorescent agent were used.

RESULTS

All phases and phase intervals during anterior and posterior segment angiography were identified, regardless of the dye used. However, agent fluorescence and visualization of the iridal blood vessels were hindered in some dogs, irrespective of agent, owing to the degree of iridal pigmentation present. No significant difference was noted between the 2 dyes in any phase or phase interval, and slight improvement in image contrast was observed with MB-102 during the venous phases owing to a reduction of vessel wall staining in both normal and diseased eyes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that MB-102 would be useful for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether distraction index (DI), a measure of passive hip joint laxity, at 2 months of age was predictive of DI at 4 or 12 months of age in German Shepherd Dogs.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Animals

45 German Shepherd Dogs.

Procedure

DI was measured at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. At the same times, a standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection of the pelvis with the hip joints extended was obtained and examined for evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD). To facilitate radiographic positioning, dogs were sedated or anesthetized.

Results

DI at 2 months of age was not significantly correlated with DI at 4 or 12 months of age. However, DI at 4 months of age was correlated with DI at 12 months of age. The proportion of dogs with DI ≥ 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (13/22; 59%) was significantly greater than the proportion of dogs with DI < 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (1/9; 11 %).

Clinical Implications

For German Shepherd Dogs, DI at 2 months of age was not sufficiently reliable to predict DI at 4 and 12 months of age; however, DI at 4 and 12 months of age were comparable. We recommend that, for German Shepherd Dogs, DI not be measured before 4 months of age and that particularly for breeding dogs, DI be remeasured after maturity to confirm DI obtained at earlier ages. Studies including other breeds of dogs should be done to determine the youngest reliable age to initiate hip joint screening. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1560–1563)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding pattern, and association of bovine torovirus (BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their arrival on a veal farm.

Animals—62 veal calves.

Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium spp.

Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15 of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay, with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2 enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV (≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer); these calves were more likely to shed virus than calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal veal calves during the first week after arrival at the farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an important pathogen of neonatal veal calves. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.

Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.

Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.

Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine relative concentrations of selected major brain tissue metabolites and their ratios and lobar variations by use of 3-T proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain of healthy dogs.

Animals—10 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—3-T 1H MRS at echo times of 144 and 35 milliseconds was performed on 5 transverse slices and 1 sagittal slice of representative brain lobe regions. Intravoxel parenchyma was classified as white matter, gray matter, or mixed (gray and white) and analyzed for relative concentrations (in arbitrary units) of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine (ie, height at position of peak on MRS graph) as well as their ratios (NAA-to-choline, NAA-to-creatine, and choline-to-creatine ratios). Peak heights for metabolites were compared between echo times. Peak heights for metabolites and their ratios were correlated and evaluated among matter types. Yield was calculated as interpretable voxels divided by available lobar voxels.

Results—Reference ranges of the metabolite concentration ratios were determined at an echo time of 35 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 1.055 to 2.224; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 1.103 to 2.161; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.759 to 1.332) and 144 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 0.687 to 1.788; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 0.984 to 2.044; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.828 to 1.853). Metabolite concentration ratios were greater in white matter than in gray matter. Voxel yields ranged from 43% for the temporal lobe to 100% for the thalamus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Metabolite concentrations and concentration ratios determined with 3-T 1H MRS were not identical to those in humans and were determined for clinical and research investigations of canine brain disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing llamas and alpacas.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired sevoflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired sevoflurane concentration ratio > 0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (ie, gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10 to 20% change in end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the mean of the lowest end-tidal sevoflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response.

Results—Mean ± SD MAC of sevoflurane was 2.29 ± 0.14% in llamas and 2.33 ± 0.09% in alpacas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The MAC of sevoflurane in llamas and alpacas was similar to that reported for other species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1167–1169)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify factors affecting the diagnostic quality of core needle renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 522 client-owned dogs with suspected kidney disease for which core needle renal biopsy specimens (n = 1,089) were submitted to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service for evaluation and inclusion in their database.

PROCEDURES Data regarding dog signalment, clinical variables, biopsy method, needle brand and gauge, biopsy results, and other variables were extracted from the database. Variables were tested for association with 3 outcomes of light microscopic evaluation of core specimens: number of glomeruli per core specimen, obtainment of < 10 glomeruli, and presence or absence of renal medullary tissue.

RESULTS Number of glomeruli per core specimen was significantly associated with needle gauge, dog age, serum creatinine concentration, and degree of proteinuria, whereas biopsy method and submitting hospital were significantly associated with the presence of renal medullary tissue in specimens. Mean numbers of glomeruli per core specimen obtained with 14- or 16-gauge needles were similar, but both were significantly greater than the mean number obtained with 18-gauge needles. Needle gauge had a similar association with the likelihood of obtaining < 10 glomeruli in a core specimen. Specimens obtained via laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches more commonly contained medullary tissue than those obtained by ultrasound-guided approaches.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, findings suggested that ultrasound-guided biopsy with a 16-gauge needle should maximize the diagnostic quality of renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease, while avoiding potential adverse effects caused by larger needles.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether intracameral injection of carbachol at the completion of phacoemulsification in dogs would prevent the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) that can develop during the first 24 hours after surgery.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

32 adult dogs undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral phacoemulsification.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with 8 dogs/group: phacoemulsification and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of 0.01 % carbachol at the end of surgery; phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of 0.01 % carbachol; phacoemulsification and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of balanced salt solution; and phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of balanced salt solution. Intraocular pressure was measured at 3 and 6 hours and the morning after surgery. Aqueous flare was also measured 6 hours and the morning after surgery.

Results

None of the dogs treated with carbachol developed postoperative ocular hypertension (ie, IOP > 27 mm of Hg), whereas 12 of 16 control dogs had ocular hypertension 3 hours after surgery. Intraocular pressure 3 hours after surgery was not significantly associated with phacoemulsification time or phacoemulsification power or with whether the dog received an intraocular lens implant. Severity of aqueous flare was similar for treated and control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Results suggested that intracameral administration of 0.01 % carbachol at the end of surgery was a safe and efficacious method of preventing the postoperative increase in IOP associated with phacoemulsification in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1885–1888)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association