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Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic effects of rapid IV administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in awake and halothaneanesthetized horses.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Horses received IV infusion of 5 L of a balanced electrolyte solution with and without 1 g/kg (0.45 g/lb) of 10% DMSO solution when they were awake and anesthetized with halothane (4 treatments/ horse). Arterial and venous blood samples were collected immediately before and at intervals during or after fluid administration and analyzed for blood gases and hematologic and serum biochemical variables, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure variables were recorded prior to, during, and after fluid administration.

Results—After administration of fluid with or without DMSO, changes in measured variables were detected immediately, but most variables returned to baseline values within 4 hours. One awake control horse had signs of anxiety; agitation and tachycardia were detected in 2 awake horses administered DMSO. These clinical signs disappeared when the rate of infusion was reduced. In anesthetized horses, increased concentrations of WBCs and plasma fibrinogen and serum creatine kinase activity persisted for 24 hours, which was related to the stress of anesthesia more than the effects of fluid administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of 5 L of balanced electrolyte solution with or without 10% DMSO induced minimal changes in cardiopulmonary function and clinicopathologic variables in either awake or halothane-anesthetized horses. Stress associated with anesthesia and recovery had a greater influence on measured variables in anesthetized horses than fluid administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:560–566)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome for llamas with long-bone fractures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—6 llamas.

Procedure—Medical records of llamas admitted between 1993 and 1998 because of long-bone fractures were reviewed. Data collected included age, sex, type of fracture, method of fracture repair, and postoperative complications. The Fisher exact test was used to compare age and sex of the llamas with long-bone fractures with those of the hospital population of llamas. All owners were contacted by telephone to determine perceived postoperative problems and whether the llamas were able to perform as expected.

Results—Mean age was 160.8 days (range, 23 to 365 days). There was 1 male and 5 females. Fractures were more likely to occur in young llamas (≤ 1 year old) than in adults. Five of the fractures were attributed to traumatic episodes. Long bones affected included the tibia (n = 2), radius (2), femur (1), and humerus (1). Internal fixation with lag screws, plating, or both was performed on fractures of all llamas except 1; that llama was treated by use of confinement to a stall. None of the llamas had intraoperative complications, but postoperative complications were reported in 2 llamas. All fractures healed eventually, and clients were pleased with outcomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-bone fractures in llamas are uncommon. Several types of long bone fractures can be successfully repaired by use of internal fixation, resulting in few complications and minimal convalescent time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1291–1293)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association