Objective—To determine the effects of protamine sulfate on clot formation time and clot strength thromboelastography variables for canine whole blood samples.
Animals—Blood samples obtained from 11 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from jugular veins of dogs into syringes with 3.2% sodium citrate (blood to citrate ratio, 9:1). Blood samples were divided into aliquots, and protamine sulfate was added to various concentrations (0 [control], 22, 44, and 66 μg/mL). Prepared samples were activated with kaolin (n = 8) or not activated (8), CaCl2 was added, and thromboelastography was performed. Reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), rate of clot formation (α angle), and maximum amplitude (MA) were measured.
Results—For kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples, protamine (66 μg/mL) significantly increased R and K and decreased α angle and MA, compared with values for control samples. Also, protamine (44 μg/mL) decreased MA in nonactivated blood samples and increased K and decreased α angle in kaolin-activated samples, compared with values for control samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated protamine prolonged clot formation time and decreased overall clot strength in a dose-dependent manner; such effects may contribute to a hypocoagulable state in dogs. Kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples were appropriate for measurement of the effects of protamine on coagulation. Administration of protamine to reverse the effects of heparin should be performed with caution.
To investigate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cytarabine delivery as a subcutaneous continuous-rate infusion with the Omnipod system.
6 client-owned dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology were enrolled through the North Carolina State University Veterinary Hospital.
Cytarabine was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/m2/hour as an SC continuous-rate infusion over 8 hours using the Omnipod system. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after initiation of the infusion. Plasma cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects approach generated population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.
The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL), average time to Cmax was 7 hours (range, 4 to 8 hours; SD, 1.67 hours), terminal half-life was 1.13 hours (SD, 0.29 hour), and the mean area under the curve was 52,996.82 hours X μg/mL (range, 35,963.67 to 71,848.37 hours X μg/mL; SD, 12,960.90 hours X μg/mL). Cmax concentrations for all dogs were more than 1,000 ng/mL (1.0 μg/mL) at the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-hour time points.
An SC continuous-rate infusion of cytarabine via the Omnipod system is feasible in dogs and was able to achieve a steady-state concentration of more than 1 μg/mL 4 to 10 hours postinitiation of cytarabine and a Cmax of 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL). These are comparable to values reported previously with IV continuous-rate infusion administration in healthy research Beagles and dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.