Objective—To identify a technique for measurement
of glycated hemoglobin percentage in blood samples
obtained from various species of nonhuman primates
(NHPs), to determine whether these percentages varied
with respect to glycemic control, and to assess
whether this physiologic variable provided a suitable
test for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in NHPs.
Sample Population—166 blood samples collected
from 121 NHPs comprising 22 species from the
Haplorhine and Strepsirhine suborders and including
nondiabetic, treated-diabetic, and diabetic animals in
23 zoologic institutions throughout the United States.
Procedure—Hemoglobin A1c percentage was measured
in 154 samples by use of high-performance liquid
chromatography. Total glycated hemoglobin percentage
was measured in 159 samples by use of a
boronate-affinity chromatographic assay. Glucose
concentration was measured in 157 samples with an
autochemical analyzer by use of a hexose kinase
Results—The boronate-affinity chromatographic technique
for measurement of total glycated hemoglobin
percentage was the most suitable method.
Nondiabetic Haplorhines had percentages higher than
those in nondiabetic Strepsirhines. In Haplorhines,
diabetic animals had percentages higher than those in
treated-diabetic animals, which had percentages higher
than those in nondiabetic animals. In Strepsirhines,
this pattern was less pronounced.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement
of total glycated hemoglobin percentage provides
useful information for diagnosing diabetes mellitus
in Haplorhines and, possibly, in Strepsirhines.
Until reference ranges are established for each
species, it is recommended that results for samples
from NHPs without clinical signs of diabetes mellitus
be compared with results of samples collected concomitantly
from NHPs with clinical signs of this condition.
( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:562–568)
To compare ketamine-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (KBAM) to detomidine-etorphine-acepromazine (DEA) for field anesthesia in captive Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii).
10 adult Przewalski horses.
A prospective randomized crossover trial was conducted. Each horse was immobilized once with KBAM (200 mg ketamine, 109.2 mg butorphanol, 36.4 mg azaperone, and 43.6 mg medetomidine) and once with DEA (40 mg detomidine premedication, followed 20 minutes later by 3.9 to 4.4 mg etorphine and 16 to 18 mg acepromazine). Both protocols were administered by IM remote dart injection with a washout period of 6 months between treatments. Selected cardiorespiratory variables and quality of anesthesia were recorded. Antagonists were administered IM (KBAM, 215 mg atipamezole and 50 mg naltrexone; DEA, 4 mg RX821002 and 100 mg naltrexone).
All horses were anesthetized and recovered uneventfully. Inductions (DEA, 6.8 min; KBAM, 11.6 min; P = 0.04) and recoveries (DEA, 3.2 min; KBAM, 19.6 min; P < 0.01) were faster with DEA compared with KBAM. Quality scores for induction and recovery did not differ between protocols, but maintenance quality was poorer for DEA (P < 0.01). Clinical concerns during DEA immobilizations included apnea, severe hypoxemia (arterial partial pressure of oxygen < 60 mm Hg), muscle rigidity, and tremors. Horses treated with KBAM were moderately hypoxemic, but arterial partial pressures of oxygen were higher compared with DEA (P < 0.01).
Captive Przewalski horses are effectively immobilized with KBAM, and this protocol results in superior muscle relaxation and less marked hypoxemia during the maintenance phase, but slower inductions and recoveries, compared with DEA.