Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Christopher Dutton x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To identify a technique for measurement of glycated hemoglobin percentage in blood samples obtained from various species of nonhuman primates (NHPs), to determine whether these percentages varied with respect to glycemic control, and to assess whether this physiologic variable provided a suitable test for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in NHPs.

Sample Population—166 blood samples collected from 121 NHPs comprising 22 species from the Haplorhine and Strepsirhine suborders and including nondiabetic, treated-diabetic, and diabetic animals in 23 zoologic institutions throughout the United States.

Procedure—Hemoglobin A1c percentage was measured in 154 samples by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Total glycated hemoglobin percentage was measured in 159 samples by use of a boronate-affinity chromatographic assay. Glucose concentration was measured in 157 samples with an autochemical analyzer by use of a hexose kinase method.

Results—The boronate-affinity chromatographic technique for measurement of total glycated hemoglobin percentage was the most suitable method. Nondiabetic Haplorhines had percentages higher than those in nondiabetic Strepsirhines. In Haplorhines, diabetic animals had percentages higher than those in treated-diabetic animals, which had percentages higher than those in nondiabetic animals. In Strepsirhines, this pattern was less pronounced.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of total glycated hemoglobin percentage provides useful information for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in Haplorhines and, possibly, in Strepsirhines. Until reference ranges are established for each species, it is recommended that results for samples from NHPs without clinical signs of diabetes mellitus be compared with results of samples collected concomitantly from NHPs with clinical signs of this condition. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:562–568)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare ketamine-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (KBAM) to detomidine-etorphine-acepromazine (DEA) for field anesthesia in captive Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii).


10 adult Przewalski horses.


A prospective randomized crossover trial was conducted. Each horse was immobilized once with KBAM (200 mg ketamine, 109.2 mg butorphanol, 36.4 mg azaperone, and 43.6 mg medetomidine) and once with DEA (40 mg detomidine premedication, followed 20 minutes later by 3.9 to 4.4 mg etorphine and 16 to 18 mg acepromazine). Both protocols were administered by IM remote dart injection with a washout period of 6 months between treatments. Selected cardiorespiratory variables and quality of anesthesia were recorded. Antagonists were administered IM (KBAM, 215 mg atipamezole and 50 mg naltrexone; DEA, 4 mg RX821002 and 100 mg naltrexone).


All horses were anesthetized and recovered uneventfully. Inductions (DEA, 6.8 min; KBAM, 11.6 min; P = 0.04) and recoveries (DEA, 3.2 min; KBAM, 19.6 min; P < 0.01) were faster with DEA compared with KBAM. Quality scores for induction and recovery did not differ between protocols, but maintenance quality was poorer for DEA (P < 0.01). Clinical concerns during DEA immobilizations included apnea, severe hypoxemia (arterial partial pressure of oxygen < 60 mm Hg), muscle rigidity, and tremors. Horses treated with KBAM were moderately hypoxemic, but arterial partial pressures of oxygen were higher compared with DEA (P < 0.01).


Captive Przewalski horses are effectively immobilized with KBAM, and this protocol results in superior muscle relaxation and less marked hypoxemia during the maintenance phase, but slower inductions and recoveries, compared with DEA.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research