OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of specific causes of lameness and the associations of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on commercial feedlots.
DESIGN Dynamic population longitudinal study.
ANIMALS Cattle on 6 commercial feedlots in Kansas and Nebraska during a 12-month period (mean daily population, 243,602 cattle; range, 223,544 to 252,825 cattle).
PROCEDURES Feedlot personnel were trained to use a standardized diagnostic algorithm and locomotion score (LMS) system to identify and classify cattle by cause and severity of lameness. Information regarding lameness cause, severity, and treatments was recorded for individual cattle. Cattle were monitored until they left the feedlot (ie, outcome; shipped with pen mates [shipped], culled prematurely because of lameness [realized], or euthanized or died [died]). Incidence rates for various causes of lameness, LMSs, and outcomes were calculated. The respective associations of cause of lameness and LMS with outcome were evaluated.
RESULTS Lameness was identified in 2,532 cattle, resulting in an overall lameness incidence rate of 1.04 cases/100 animal-years. Realized and mortality rates were 0.096 cattle/100 animal-years and 0.397 deaths/100 animal-years, respectively. Injury to the proximal portion of a limb was the most frequently identified cause of lameness followed by undefined lameness, septic joint or deep digital sepsis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). As the LMS (lameness severity) at lameness detection increased, the percentage of cattle that died but not the percentage of cattle that were realized increased.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided clinically useful prognostic guidelines for management of lame feedlot cattle.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the β-adrenoceptor agonists ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on ECG and clinicopathologic variables of finishing beef steers.
DESIGN Randomized controlled trial.
ANIMALS 30 Angus steers.
PROCEDURES Steers were grouped by body weight and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 diets for 23 days: a diet containing no additive (control diet) or a diet containing ractopamine hydrochloride (300 mg/steer/d) or zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg [3.8 mg/lb] of feed on a dry-matter basis), beginning on day 0. Steers were instrumented with an ambulatory ECG monitor on days −2, 6, 13, and 23, and continuous recordings were obtained for 72, 24, 24, and 96 hours, respectively. At the time of instrumentation, blood samples were obtained for CBC and serum biochemical and blood lactate analysis. Electrocardiographic recordings were evaluated for mean heart rate and arrhythmia rates.
RESULTS Steers fed zilpaterol or ractopamine had greater mean heart rates than those fed the control diet. Mean heart rates were within reference limits for all steers, with the exception of those in the ractopamine group on day 14, in which mean heart rate was high. No differences in arrhythmia rates were identified among the groups, nor were any differences identified when arrhythmias were classified as single, paired, or multiple (> 2) beats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dietary supplementation of cattle with ractopamine or zilpaterol at FDA-approved doses had no effect on arrhythmia rates but caused an increase in heart rate that remained within reference limits.