Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvanted modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine against challenge with a virulent type 2 BVDV strain in calves with or without maternal antibodies against the virus.
Animals—23 crossbred dairy calves.
Procedures—Calves were fed colostrum containing antibodies against BVDV or colostrum without antiBVDV antibodies within 6 hours of birth and again 8 to 12 hours after the first feeding. Calves were vaccinated with a commercial modified-live virus combination vaccine or a sham vaccine at approximately 5 weeks of age and challenged with virulent type 2 BVDV 3.5 months after vaccination. Clinical signs of BVDV infection, development of viremia, and variation in WBC counts were recorded for 14 days after challenge exposure.
Results—Calves that received colostrum free of antiBVDV antibodies and were vaccinated with the sham vaccine developed severe disease (4 of the 7 calves died or were euthanatized). Calves that received colostrum free of anti-BVDV antibodies and were vaccinated and calves that received colostrum with antiBVDV antibodies and were vaccinated developed only mild or no clinical signs of disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the modified-live virus vaccine induced a strong protective immune response in young calves, even when plasma concentrations of maternal antibody were high. In addition, all vaccinated calves were protected against viral shedding, whereas control calves vaccinated with the sham vaccine shed virus for an extended period of time.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of a modified-live
virus (MLV) combination vaccine containing type 1
and type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in providing
fetal protection against challenge with heterologous
type 1 and type 2 BVDV.
Procedure—Heifers were vaccinated with a commercial
MLV combination vaccine or given a sham vaccine
(sterile water) and bred 47 to 53 days later. Heifers
were challenged with type 1 or type 2 BVDV on days
75 to 79 of gestation. Clinical signs of BVDV infection,
presence of viremia, and WBC count were assessed
for 14 days after challenge. Fetuses were collected on
days 152 to 156 of gestation, and virus isolation was
attempted from fetal tissues.
Results—Type 1 BVDV was not isolated in any fetuses
from vaccinated heifers and was isolated in all
fetuses from nonvaccinated heifers challenged with
type 1 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV was isolated in 1 fetus
from a vaccinated heifer and all fetuses from nonvaccinated
heifers challenged with type 2 BVDV.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercial
MLV combination vaccine containing type 1 and type
2 BVDV given to the dam prior to breeding protected
100% of fetuses against type 1 BVDV infection and
95% of fetuses against type 2 BVDV infection. Use of
a bivalent MLV vaccine in combination with a comprehensive
BVDV control program should result in
decreased incidence of persistent infection in calves
and therefore minimize the risk of BVDV infection in
the herd. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1898–1904)
Procedure—Effects of genistein on the magnitude
and kinetics of inhibition of BHV-1 phosphorylation of
glycoprotein E (gE) and in vitro replication of BHV-1 in
MDBK cells were evaluated. Antiviral activity of genistein
was compared with 2 compounds, estradiol-17β
(EST) and tamoxifen (TAM), that have estrogenic and
antiestrogenic activity, respectively. High-performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to
determine the concentration of genistein in medium
from infected and uninfected MDBK cultures.
Results—Genistein reduced BHV-1, but not gE-deleted
BHV-1 (BHV-1gEΔ3.1), replication by 90% at 18
hours after inoculation. This inhibition was not sustained
through 24 hours after inoculation. The genistein
concentration in media from MDBK cells was
decreased by 40% during BHV-1 infection, compared
with 16% for uninfected cells, at 24 hours after inoculation.
Genistein inhibited gE phosphorylation and BHV-
1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. Dosing with
25 µMgenistein at 0 and 12 hours after inoculation of
BHV-1 was optimal for decreasing BHV-1 replication.
Estradiol-17β EST and TAM did not affect BHV-1 replication.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The decrease
in genistein concentration was a viral infection-dependent
event. Genistein is an inhibitor of BHV-1 replication
because of its ability to inhibit tyrosine kinase
activity. A possible application may be for the control
of BHV-1 infection in cattle by feeding soya products
rich in genistein prior to or during periods of stress.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1124–1128)
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno component of a pentavalent Leptospira bacterin against a virulent experimental challenge with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203 in cattle.
Animals—Fifty-five 6-month-old Holstein heifers.
Procedures—Heifers that were negative for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus determined via immunohistochemical testing and negative for Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola, and Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae determined via microscopic agglutination assay were enrolled in the study. Two heifers were separated and used for the challenge passage. The remaining heifers were vaccinated twice with a commercial pentavalent bacterin or a sham vaccine 21 days apart and subsequently challenged with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. Urinary shedding, antibody titers, and clinical signs of leptospirosis infection were recorded for 8 weeks after challenge.
Results—Heifers that received the pentavalent bacterin did not shed the organism in urine after challenge and did not have renal colonization at necropsy. Heifers that were sham vaccinated shed the organism in urine and had renal colonization.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that a pentavalent Leptospira vaccine containing L interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno can provide protection against challenge with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. It is important to demonstrate cross-protection that is vaccine specific against disease-causing strains of organisms that are prevalent under field conditions.
Objective—To inoculate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the sixth or seventh week of gestation with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and observe for signs of reproductive tract disease during a 182-day period.
Animals—10 pregnant white-tailed deer (8 seronegative and 2 seropositive [control deer] for BVDV).
Procedures—Deer were inoculated with 1 of 2 deer-derived BVDV strains (RO3-20663 or RO3-24272). Serum anti-BVDV antibody titers were determined prior to and 21 or 35 days after inoculation. Virus isolation (VI) procedures were performed on tissues from fetuses and does that died and on blood samples collected from live fawns. Ear notch specimens obtained from live fawns were assessed by use of BVDV antigen-capture ELISA (ACE).
Results—Both RO3-20663–inoculated seropositive deer gave birth to apparently normal fawns. Among the RO3-24272–inoculated seronegative deer, 1 died, and 1 aborted and 1 resorbed their fetuses; among the RO3-20663–inoculated seronegative deer, 3 died, 1 aborted its fetus, and 1 gave birth to 2 fawns that were likely persistently infected. On the basis of VI and ACE results, those 2 fawns were positive for BVDV; both had no detectable neutralizing anti-BVDV antibodies in serum.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reproductive tract disease that developed in pregnant white-tailed deer following BVDV inoculation was similar to that which develops in BVDV-exposed cattle. Methods developed for BVDV detection in cattle (VI, immunohistochemical evaluations, and ACE) can be applied in assessments of white-tailed deer. Fawns from does that had serum anti-BVDV antibodies prior to inoculation were protected against BVDV infection in utero.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of calves receiving 2 doses of a dual-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2) before and after exposure to BHV1.
ANIMALS 24 Holstein steers negative for anti-BHV1 antibodies and proliferative cell-mediated immune responses against BHV1 and BVDV.
PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The vaccinated group (n = 10) received 2 doses of vaccine on days 0 and 21. Control (n = 10) and seeder (4) groups remained unvaccinated. Calves were commingled during the study except for the 3-day period (days 53 to 55) when seeders were inoculated with BHV1 (1.04 × 107 TCID50, IV) to serve as a source of virus for challenge (days 56 through 84). Rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were monitored, and blood and nasal specimens were obtained for determination of clinicopathologic and immunologic variables.
RESULTS After BHV1 challenge, mean rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were lower for vaccinates than controls. In vaccinates, antibody titers against BHV1 and BVDV2, but not BVDV1, increased after challenge as did extracellular and intracellular interferon-γ expression, indicating a T helper 1 memory response. Additional results of cell marker expression were variable, with no significant increase or decrease associated with treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Calves administered 2 doses of a killed-virus vaccine developed cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to BHV1 and BVDV, which were protective against disease when those calves were subsequently exposed to BHV1.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine to protect against BHV-1 challenge-induced abortion and stillbirth.
Animals—35 beef heifers.
Procedures—Before breeding, heifers were vaccinated with a commercially available BHV-1 inactivated vaccine SC or IM. The estrous cycle was then synchronized, and heifers were artificially inseminated 30 to 60 days after vaccination. Heifers (n = 21) were challenge inoculated IV at approximately 180 days of gestation with virulent BHV-1. Fourteen control heifers were not vaccinated. Clinical signs of BHV-1 infection were monitored for 10 days following challenge; serologic status and occurrence of abortion or stillbirth were evaluated until time of calving.
Results—18 of 21 (85.7%) heifers that received vaccine were protected from abortion following challenge, whereas all 14 control heifers aborted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that an inactivated BHV-1 vaccine can protect against abortion resulting from a substantial challenge infection, with efficacy similar to that of modified-live BHV-1 vaccines.
Objective—To evaluate immunity induced by a multivalent vaccine containing a US Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type hardjo bovis (LHB) isolate in heifers challenged 12 months after vaccination.
Design—Prospective vaccine challenge study.
Animals—36 one-month old Holstein heifers.
Procedures—18 heifers were vaccinated at 4 and 8 weeks of age with an inactivated vaccine containing Leptospira fractions. Additionally, 18 heifers were vaccinated at the same age with the same vaccine without any Leptospira fractions. All heifers were challenged with a US-origin LHB 12 months following booster vaccination. Urine samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks after challenge, and serum was collected at −1, 28, and 56 days after challenge for serologic testing. At 8 weeks after challenge, all heifers were necropsied, and kidney and reproductive system samples were collected for bacteriologic culture.
Results—4 of 18 vaccinates had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples, but only at 1 time point. All control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples for at least 5 time points. Vaccinates had negative results of bacteriologic culture of kidney and reproductive system samples following necropsy, whereas all control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of kidney samples and 5 of 18 had positive results of bacteriologic culture of reproductive system samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vaccine administered to calves at 1 month of age prevented leptospire colonization of kidney and reproductive system tissue and significantly reduced urine shedding following challenge 12 months after vaccination. This vaccine provides an opportunity to protect calves at an early age from becoming infected and ultimately from becoming an LHB reservoir.
Case Description—136 pregnant beef cows were purchased in the fall of 2003. The following spring, 128 cows calved as expected; 8 cows were believed to have aborted with the fetuses unavailable for evaluation. Of the 128 calves born, 8 died within 2 weeks after birth and 9 were born with congenital abnormalities.
Clinical Findings—Cows and their calves were evaluated for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. Forty-four of 120 calves, but 0 cows, tested positive for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemical staining of ear notch specimens.
Treatment and Outcome—Five BVDV test–positive calves died shortly after weaning, and the remaining 39 BVDV test–positive calves were moved to an isolated feedlot and retested for BVDV at 5 to 6 months of age; 36 had positive results, which indicated that they were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV, whereas 3 had negative results, which indicated that they were transiently infected with BVDV at the time of the first test. All PI calves were infected with the same BVDV type 2a strain. As yearlings, 17 of the 36 PI calves died peracutely with lesions consistent with mucosal disease, 6 died without gross lesions, and 2 were euthanized because of chronic ill thrift. The remaining 11 PI calves appeared healthy and were sold for slaughter. Screening of the following year's calf crop for BVDV by use of immunohistochemical staining of ear-notch specimens yielded negative results for all calves.
Clinical Relevance—Introduction of BVDV into a naïve cow herd resulted in a loss of 44% of the calf crop subsequent to reproductive loss, poor thrift, and mucosal disease.