A 12-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier was presented with pollakiuria and stranguria.
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder trigone and urethra was diagnosed via CT, cystoscopic, and histologic examinations. Azotemia developed 2 weeks following diagnosis, secondary to bilateral ureteral obstruction.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Percutaneous antegrade ureteral stenting was unsuccessful; therefore, a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device with 2 nephrostomy and 1 cystostomy catheters was surgically placed. Two months following placement of the SUB device, the dog developed a firm, multilobulated cutaneous mass at the site of the subcutaneous access port of the SUB device. Results of cytologic examination of cells aspirated from the mass were consistent with TCC. Within 1 month of confirmation of TCC of the cutaneous mass, the mass was ulcerated and infected, and the dog was euthanized because of signs of pain and perceived poor quality of life.
Seeding of neoplastic cells is a known complication of needle aspiration or biopsy or surgery in people and dogs with carcinomas. The occurrence of TCC at the SUB port site suggested caution with the placement of a SUB device in dogs with obstructive TCC.
An 8-year-old 36.3-kg (79.9-lb) spayed female Rottweiler was evaluated because of anorexia and vomiting.
Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from serum biochemical analyses, CT, and cytologic examination.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Only marginal improvement was observed after 24 hours of traditional medical management; therefore, novel continual biliary drainage was achieved with ultrasonographically and fluoroscopically guided placement of a percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage (PCD) catheter. Within 24 hours after PCD catheter placement, the dog was eating regularly, had increased intestinal peristaltic sounds on abdominal auscultation, no longer required nasogastric tube feeding, and had decreased serum total bilirubin concentration (7.7 mg/dL, compared with 23.1 mg/dL preoperatively). Bile recycling was performed by administering the drained bile back to the patient through a nasogastric tube. The PCD remained in place for 5 weeks and was successfully removed after follow-up cholangiography confirmed bile duct patency.
Transhepatic PCD catheter placement provided fast resolution of EHBO secondary to pancreatitis in the dog of the present report. We believe that this minimally invasive, interventional procedure has the potential to decrease morbidity and death in select patients, compared with traditional surgical options, and that additional research is warranted regarding clinical use, safety, and long-term results of this procedure in veterinary patients, particularly those that have transient causes of EHBO, are too unstable to undergo more invasive biliary diversion techniques, or have biliary diseases that could benefit from palliation alone.
OBJECTIVE To determine incidence of and risk factors for major complications occurring in dogs within 30 days after cytoreductive surgery performed by a single pair of surgeons for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 160 client-owned dogs that underwent cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses between January 2009 and December 2015 at a veterinary teaching hospital.
PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for complications occurring within 30 days after surgery. Data (eg, signalment, clinical signs, previous treatments, preoperative neurologic examination findings, neuroanatomical location, time from onset of clinical signs to surgery, surgical approach, and histopathologic diagnosis) were analyzed for associations with death and with development of major complications other than death.
RESULTS 21 (13.1%) dogs died (11 during hospitalization and 10 after discharge) and 30 (18.8%) developed major complications other than death during the first 30 days after surgery. Dogs with abnormal preoperative neurologic examination findings were more likely to develop complications or die. Dogs undergoing a suboccipital approach were more likely to die. The most common postoperative complications other than death were seizures (n = 18 [11.3%]), worsening of neurologic status (6 [3.8%]), and aspiration pneumonia (6 [3.8%]).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study provided valuable information on predisposing factors, odds of major complications or death, and incidences of major complications or death in dogs during the first 30 days after undergoing cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses. Careful case selection may help improve outcomes and minimize complications.