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Abstract

Objective—To compare treatment with enrofloxacin and doxycycline with no treatment in cats experimentally infected with Haemobartonella felis.

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—16 cats.

Procedure—Cats were inoculated with large-form H felis from a chronically infected donor. Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: doxycycline (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), low-dose enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), high-dose enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), and an untreated control group. Clinical signs, Hct, blood smears, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were used to monitor progression of the infection.

Results—All cats were confirmed to be infected with H felis via blood smear evaluations and PCR assay results. Treatment had no effect on Hct during the intratreatment period, but Hct values were significantly greater in the low-dose enrofloxacin group, compared with the control group, during the posttreatment period. During the intratreatment period, H felis organism counts per 1,000 RBC in the doxycycline treatment and the high-dose enrofloxacin treatment groups decreased at a significantly faster rate than those in the control group. In the posttreatment period, organism counts in the doxycycline treatment group and the low- and high-dose enrofloxacin groups decreased at significantly faster rates than counts in the control group. There was no significant effect of treatment on the number of positive PCR assay results. Two cats treated with enrofloxacin and 1 cat treated with doxycycline completely cleared the H felis organism despite presumed immunosuppression caused by glucocorticoids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the hypothesis that enrofloxacin has anti-H felis effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:250–253)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the novel factor Xa inhibitor apixaban in clinically normal cats.

ANIMALS 5 purpose-bred domestic shorthair cats.

PROCEDURES A single dose of apixaban (0.2 mg/kg, PO) was administered to each cat (time 0), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 1,440 minutes. After a 1-week washout period, another dose of apixaban (0.2 mg/kg, IV) was administered to each cat, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 1,440 minutes. Apixaban concentrations in plasma were measured via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacodynamic effects of apixaban were determined with a commercial assay for factor × activity, which measures endogenous factor Xa activity chromogenically.

RESULTS Factor Xa was inhibited as a function of time after a single dose of apixaban administered orally or IV, and a direct inverse correlation with the plasma apixaban concentration was detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed moderate clearance, short half-life, and high bioavailability for apixaban. A 2-compartment model was fit to the IV pharmacokinetic data; compartmental modeling could not be used to adequately describe the oral data because of substantial interindividual variability.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results inticated that apixaban was an effective inhibitor of factor Xa in cats. Further studies will be needed to determine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after multidose administration, effects of cardiac disease on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing recommendations, and efficacy of apixaban for use in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease in cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research