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Abstract

Objective—To determine and compare levels of sedation achieved by IM administration of diphenhydramine, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and acepromazine in dogs.

Design—Prospective randomized study.

Animals—56 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive diphenhydramine at 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg (0.9, 1.8, or 3.6 mg/lb, respectively) IM; acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg (0.05 mg/lb) IM; or saline solution at 0.05 mL/kg (0.02 mL/lb) IM. Sedation was assessed by use of a 6-category descriptive system based on observation and interaction.

Results—Dogs in the acepromazine group had significantly higher sedation scores than did dogs in the saline solution or diphenhydramine groups at 30 minutes. Dogs in the diphenhydramine groups did not have significantly different sedation scores from dogs in the saline solution group at any time point.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diphenhydramine did not cause clinically appreciable sedation in healthy dogs. Diphenhydramine is not suitable as a sole sedative prior to general anesthesia in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1092–1094)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association among signalment, health status, other clinical variables, and treatments and events during cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) with the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for animals with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—161 dogs and 43 cats with CPA.

Procedures—Data were gathered during a 60-month period on animals that had CPA and underwent CPCR. Logistic regression was used to evaluate effects of multiple predictors for ROSC.

Results—56 (35%) dogs and 19 (44%) cats had successful CPCR. Twelve (6%) animals (9 dogs and 3 cats) were discharged from the hospital. Successfully resuscitated dogs were significantly more likely to have been treated with mannitol, lidocaine, fluids, dopamine, corticosteroids, or vasopressin; had CPA while anesthetized; received chest compressions while positioned in lateral recumbency; and had a suspected cause of CPA other than hemorrhage or anemia, shock, hypoxemia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cerebral trauma, malignant arrhythmia, or an anaphylactoid reaction and were less likely to have been treated with multiple doses of epinephrine, had a longer duration of CPA, or had multiple disease conditions, compared with findings in dogs that were not successfully resuscitated. Successfully resuscitated cats were significantly more likely to have had more people participate in CPCR and less likely to have had shock as the suspected cause of CPA, compared with findings in cats that were not successfully resuscitated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis was grave for animals with CPA, except for those that had CPA while anesthetized.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate selected cardiopulmonary responses to propotol 2 infusion rates in nonpretreated llamas breathing room air.

Animals

5 adult llamas (3 males, 2 females) with mean ± SD body weight of 135 ± 17.7 kg.

Procedure

After anesthesia induction with propofol (2 mg/kg of body weight, IV), llamas received either propofol infusion 0.2 mg/kg/min (group 1) or 0.4 mg/kg/min (group 2) for 60 minutes. Measurements, taken before anesthesia induction and at regular intervals during infusion were: direct blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, cardiac output, and arterial blood gas tensions. Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac and stroke indices, and plasma bicarbonate and base excess concentrations were calculated.

Results

At 3 to 60 minutes after either dosage of propofol, PaCO2 and heart rate increased in all llamas; at the same time, PaO2 and arterial pH decreased. Mean pulmonary artery and central venous pressures, and stroke index decreased at 3 to 60 minutes after either dosage of propofol. Mean arterial pressure decreased at 30 to 60 minutes after infusion of 0.4 mg of propofol/kg/min; pulmonary arterial wedge pressure decreased at 20 to 40 minutes and 3 to 60 minutes after infusion of 0.2 and 0.4 mg of propofol/kg/min, respectively. Mean time from termination of infusion to sternal recumbency was 7 (group 1) and 13 (group 2) minutes. Standing was achieved in a mean 11 (group 1) and 22 (group 2) minutes.

Conclusion

Propofol infusion rate of 0.2 mg/kg/min was considered too low to maintain a suitable depth of anesthesia, but 0.4 mg/kg/min was considered sufficient for noninvasive procedures with minimal cardiopulmonary depression. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:153–156)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, magnesium sulfate, and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO-MAC) in goats.

Animals—8 adult goats.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane delivered via face mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain normocapnia. After an appropriate equilibration period, baseline MAC (MACB) was determined and the following 4 treatments were administered IV: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (loading dose [LD], 30 mL/20 min; constant rate infusion [CRI], 60 mL/h), magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h), ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min), and magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h) combined with ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min); then MAC was redetermined.

Results—Ketamine significantly decreased ISOMAC by 28.7 ± 3.7%, and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate significantly decreased ISOMAC by 21.1 ± 4.1%. Saline solution or magnesium sulfate alone did not significantly change ISOMAC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate, at doses used in the study, decreased the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain anesthesia, verifying the clinical impression that ketamine decreases the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain surgical anesthesia. Magnesium, at doses used in the study, did not decrease ISOMAC or augment ketamine's effects on ISOMAC.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).

Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg; 10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until 20 hours after surgery.

Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02, respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia was not required by any of the cats receiving meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC, and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment required rescue analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy appeared to have less pain after surgery than those receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antinociceptive and selected effects associated with IM administration of xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine-zolazepam in llamas.

Animals—8 adult male llamas.

Procedures—Each llama received tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg) combined with either xylazine (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (treatments designated as TZ-Xy0.1, TZ-Xy0.2, TZ-Xy0.4, and TZ-Sal, respectively) at 1-week intervals. Selected cardiorespiratory variables were assessed during lateral recumbency and anesthesia, and recovery characteristics were recorded. Duration of antinociception was evaluated by clamping a claw every 5 minutes.

Results—Interval between treatment administration and lateral recumbency for TZ-Xy0.4 was shorter than that for TZ-Xy0.1 or TZ-Sal. Mean ± SEM duration of antinociception was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (51.3 ± 7. 0 minutes), compared with findings for TZ-Xy0.2 (31.9 ± 6.0 minutes), TZ-Xy0.1 (8.1 ± 4.0 minutes), and TZ-Sal (0.6 ± 0.6 minutes). Interval between treatment administration and standing was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (112 ± 9 minutes) than it was for TZ-Xy0.2 (77 ± 9 minutes) or TZ-Sal (68 ± 9 minutes). Mean heart and respiratory rates during the first 30 minutes for TZ-Sal exceeded values for the other treatments. Administration of TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 resulted in Pao 2 < 60 mm Hg at 5 minutes after llamas attained lateral recumbency, and values differed from TZ-Sal findings at 5, 10, and 15 minutes; Paco 2 was greater for TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 than for TZ-Sal at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) increased the duration of antinociception in llamas anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus.

Animals—Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMACT) was measured.

Results—Mean ± SD ISOMAC and ISOMACT values were 2.33 ± 0.13% and 2.12 ± 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 ± 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMACT determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMACT and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of propofol required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs anesthetized with propofol alone or propofol in combination with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine.

ANIMALS 6 male Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized on 3 occasions, at weekly intervals, with propofol alone (loading dose, 6 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.45 mg/kg/min), propofol (loading dose, 5 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.35 mg/kg/min) and a low dose of ketamine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 0.025 mg/kg/min), or propofol (loading dose, 4 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.3 mg/kg/min) and a high dose of ketamine (loading dose, 3 mg/kg; CRI, 0.05 mg/kg/min). After 60 minutes, the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined in duplicate.

RESULTS Least squares mean ± SEM propofol MIRs required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus were 0.76 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, 0.60 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, and 0.41 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min when dogs were anesthetized with propofol alone, propofol and low-dose ketamine, and propofol and high-dose ketamine, respectively. There were significant decreases in the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus when dogs were anesthetized with propofol and low-dose ketamine (27 ± 10%) or with propofol and high-dose ketamine (30 ± 10%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Ketamine, at the doses studied, significantly decreased the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research