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  • Author or Editor: Christine Deaver x
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Genetic recombination between field strains and vaccine strains of pseudorabies virus (prv) has been suggested as a scenario that might arise from use of deletion-mutant modified-live vaccine strains, particularly those strains attenuated by deletions within the thymidine kinase (tk -) gene locus. To address this hypothesis experimentally, it is necessary to screen large numbers of prv isolates for their tk genotype. Techniques to detect the native tk genotype are routinely used in molecular virology laboratories, but are time-consuming. We adapted the polymerase chain reaction to define the genotypic status of prv isolates with regard to the presence or absence of deletions in the tk gene locus. Used in tandem with the existing glycoprotein-specific elisa that discriminate between prv-vaccinated and field strain-infected swine populations, the described technique may help to clarify whether vaccine-derived recombinants are generated under natural conditions and after normal vaccine usage.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify biomarkers of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate neurotoxicity in transgenic mice expressing the mutant canine ABCB1 gene (ABCB1-1Δ).

Animals—8 ABCB1 knock-in and knock-out transgenic mice expressing the ABCB1-1Δ gene and 8 control mice expressing the wild-type canine ABCB1 gene (ABCB1-WT).

Procedures—Groups including 2 ABCB1-1Δ mutant mice and 2 ABCB1-WT mice were administered the P-gp substrates ivermectin (10 mg/kg, SC), doramectin (10 mg/kg, SC), moxidectin (10 mg/kg, PO), or digoxin (1.53 mg/kg, SC). A toxicogenomic approach based on DNA microarrays was used to examine whole-genome expression changes in mice administered P-gp substrates.

Results—Compared with control ABCB1-WT mice, ABCB1-1Δ mutant mice developed neurotoxic signs including ataxia, lethargy, and tremors similar to those reported for dogs with the ABCB1-1Δ mutation. Microarray analysis revealed that gene expression was altered in ABCB1-1Δ mutant mice, compared with findings for ABCB1-WT mice, following administration of the same P-gp substrates. Gene pathway analysis revealed that genes with a ≥ 2-fold gene expression change were associated with behavior and nervous system development and function. Moreover, 34 genes were altered in the ABCB1-1Δ mutant mice in all 4 drug treatment groups. These genes were also associated with behavior, which was identified as the top-ranked gene network.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These study data have facilitated understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicosis in ABCB1-1Δ mutant mice following exposure to various P-gp substrates. Some genes appear to be potential biomarkers of P-gp substrate neurotoxicity that might be used to predict the safety of those drugs in dogs with the ABCB1-1Δ mutation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research