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  • Author or Editor: Christine B. Navarre x
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Objective

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous paracentesis for fluid collection from the first gastric compartment of healthy llamas and to describe characteristics of that fluid.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

10 healthy adult llamas.

Procedure

Physical examinations were performed prior to sample collection and for 14 days afterwards. A CBC was performed prior to sample collection and 5 days later. A 16-gauge, 7.5-cm stainless steel needle, positioned approximately 20 cm caudal to the costochondral junction of the last rib, was pointed in a dorsocraniomedial direction and pushed through the abdominal wall into the lumen of the first gastric compartment. Fluid was aspirated and analyzed immediately for color, odor, consistency, pH, methylene blue reduction (MBR) time, protozoa, and bacteria.

Results

Fluid samples were obtained from 9 of 10 llamas. Mean volume was 4.1 ml, mean pH was 6.67, and mean MBR time was 173 seconds. Odor was slightly acidic, color was light brown-green to light yellow-green, and consistency was moderate. Small protozoa with variable iodine staining and gram-negative bacteria were commonly detected. With few exceptions, results of physical examinations and CBC remained within reference ranges.

Clinical Implications

Fluid samples from the first gastric compartment can be successfully obtained by percutaneous paracentesis. Fluid characteristics were similar to those of fluid collected via orogastric tube in llamas and cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:812–815).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the use of auricular vein catheters (AVC) in cattle in a clinical setting.

Design

Case series.

Animals

57 cattle.

Procedure

68 AVC were placed in cattle for the administration of drugs or rehydration fluids. Catheter size, quantity of fluids administered, duration of administration, drugs administered, duration of catheter maintenance, and problems were recorded.

Results

The AVC ranged in size from 20 to 14 gauge, with the latter being the predominate size. A maximum flow rate of 7.7 L/h was achieved, and the flow rate was satisfactory in all but 1 case. The maximum duration of maintenance was > 96 hours. Problems occurred in 29 of 68 (43%) catheterizations; the most frequent problem was occlusion of the catheter, which occurred 16 times (24%). No serious complications occurred.

Clinical Implications

Auricular vein catheters were a convenient, safe, and low-cost alternative to jugular vein catheters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:905–907)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine typical alterations in acid-base balance and serum electrolyte concentrations in cattle grouped on the basis of age, breed type, hydration status, clinical signs, and underlying disease.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

632 cattle.

Procedure

Information on blood pH, Pvo2, Pvco2, HCO3 concentration, and base excess (BE) as well as serum or plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, and total carbon dioxide concentrations was obtained. Values for calves (ie, cattle ≥ 1 month old) were compared with values for cattle ≥ 1 month old. Within each age-group, values were compared for cattle grouped on the basis of breed type, previous treatment, and hydration status. Proportions of cattle with various disorders for which values were within, greater than, or less than reference ranges were determined.

Results

BE, pH, and HCO3 concentration were significantly higher and Pvco2 and sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were significantly lower among cattle ≥ 1 month old than calves. Base excess and HCO3- concentration were significantly lower among dairy than beef calves. Sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly lower among dairy than beef cattle ≥ 1 month old. A higher proportion of cattle that did not survive had a high anion gap than cattle that did survive. Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were significantly lower among dehydrated cattle than cattle that were not dehydrated.

Clinical Implications

Because certain alterations were consistently found in some groups of cattle, it may be possible to make reasonable predictions of alterations in acid-base balance and serum electrolyte concentrations when laboratory evaluations are not available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1769–1775)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association