Objective—To estimate the national incidence of,
operation-level risk factors for, and annual economic
impact of colic among horses in the United States
during 1998 and 1999.
Animals—21,820 horses on 1,026 horse operations
in 28 states.
Procedures—Horses were monitored for colic for 1
year, and results were recorded in a log that was collected
quarterly. Operation-level data were collected
via 4 on-site personal interviews. Associations
between colic and independent variables adjusted for
size of operation were determined.
Results—Annual national incidence of colic in the US
horse population was estimated to be 4.2 colic
events/100 horses per year. Case fatality rate was
11%, and 1.4% of colic events resulted in surgery.
Annual cost of colic in the Unites States was estimated
to be $115,300,000.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The national
impact of equine colic is substantial because of the
high case fatality rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;
Objective—To estimate the prevalence of
Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection
among cows on beef operations in the United
Design—Cross-sectional seroprevalence study.
Sample Population—A convenience sample of 380
herds in 21 states.
Procedure—Serum samples were obtained from
10,371 cows and tested for antibodies to M avium
subsp paratuberculosis with a commercial ELISA .
Producers were interviewed to collect data on herd
Results—30 (7.9%) herds had 1 or more animals for
which results of the ELISA were positive; 40 (0.4%)
of the individual cow samples yielded positive results.
None of the herd management practices studied
were found to be associated with whether any animals
in the herd would be positive for antibodies to M
avium subsp paratuberculosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the prevalence of antibodies to M avium
subsp paratuberculosis among beef cows in the
United States is low. Herds with seropositive animals
were widely distributed geographically. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;219:497–501)
Objective—To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations.
Design—Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Sample—16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states.
Procedures—Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales.
Results—8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was ≥ 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.